Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 18 March 2020 – 24 March 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 16-23 March incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. Occasional eruptive events were recorded along with seven explosions. Ash plumes rose 2.8-3 km above the crater rim and material was ejected 1.1-1.7 km away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-24 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to 1.5-2.3 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed bursts of gas, steam, and a small amount of ash that rose up to 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. on 13 and 17 March. Ash plumes drifted NE and SE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : On 16 March INSIVUMEH reported an increased number of avalanches at Fuego, traveling down the Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. A 600-m-long lava flow advanced down the Trinidad drainage. Weak explosive activity accompanied lava effusion. There were 4-12 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 17-24 March, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-22 km S, SW, and W. Almost daily ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and La Cruz. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled nearby houses and were felt in communities within a 25-km radius. Incandescent material was ejected 100-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza, Trinidad, Honda, and Las Lajas ravines. Lava flows of variable lengths (400-1,000 m) descended the Trinidad and Ceniza ravines each day but were inactive by the evening of 23 March.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-19 March ash plumes from Ibu rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W based on satellite images and weather models. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy was visible during 13-20 March, and the number of hot avalanches descending all of the flanks continued to increase. A bright thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images. Gas-and-steam plumes containing some ash drifted as far as 170 km E, NE, and N at altitudes of 5.5-6.5 km (18,000-21,300 ft) a.s.l. during 15 and 18-19 March. Vulcanian activity was visible on 19 March. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that on 18 March a dense white-gray plume rose 300 m above the summit of Anak Krakatau and drifted S. The event lasted just over 10 minutes based on seismic data. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km-radius hazard zone from the crater.

Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia : Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that small and periodic ash-and-gas emissions from Nevado del Ruiz were visible in satellite and webcam images during 18-24 March. These emissions drifted NE and SE. A gas-and-steam plume rose 1.5 km above the crater rim on 23 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-colour scale).

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 17-24 March Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 100 m above the crater rim. Multiple lava flows (as many as four per day) traveled 100-300 m NW, W, and SW flanks.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 17-23 March there were 74-182 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. An explosion at 2210 on 17 March ejected incandescent material onto the flanks and produced an ash plume that rose 1.2 km above the crater rim and drifted SE. Minor ashfall was reported in the municipalities of Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW), San Andrés and Hueyapan (16 km SW), and Ocuituco (24 km SW) during 17-18 March. Some emissions were accompanied by incandescent material ejected out of the crater between 2229-2315 on 18 March. An explosion at 1928 on 19 March ejected incandescent material a short distance from the crater. On 22 March an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted S and ejected incandescent tephra fell onto the flanks at a distance of 800 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Reventador | Ecuador : IG reported that during 17-24 March seismic data from Reventador’s network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Gas-and-ash emissions were observed almost daily, though cloudy weather often prevented views of the volcano; IG and the Washington VAAC reported gas-and-ash emissions rising around 500-900 m above the crater rim, and as high as 2 km, and drifting NE, SE, S, and W. Ashfall was reported in San Rafael (8 km ESE) on 17 March. Incandescent blocks rolled 900 m down the S and SE flanks during 23-24 March.

Santa Maria | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that explosions at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 500-900 m above the crater and drifted as far as 1 km NW, W, and SW. Avalanches of blocks descended the SE, E, S, and SW flanks of Caliente cone.

Semisopochnoi | United States : AVO reported that activity at Semisopochnoi had decreased compared to the previous week. Seismicity remained elevated during 19-24 March and no surface activity was observed on most days, though weather clouds often prevented visual confirmation. A steam plume was visible in a satellite image on 21 March and weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in one satellite image during 21-22 March. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin was characterized as near-continuous tremor during 18-20 March and continuous tremor during 21-24 March. Steam-and-gas plumes rising from the summit crater were recorded daily by the webcam and sometimes identified in satellite images. Elevated surface temperatures, consistent with lava in the summit crater, were also identified in satellite images. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that during 13-19 March incandescence from Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible nightly. On 14 March an ash plume rose 400 m above the crater rim. On 23 March the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 0.9 km (3,000 ft) a.s.l., or 120 m above the summit, and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 18 March 2020 – 24 March 2020

Manam | Papua New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-21 March ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, based on satellite data and weather models.

Soputan | Sulawesi (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 23 March an ash plume from Soputan was seen by a pilot rising to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 11 March 2020 – 17 March 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 9-16 March incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. Occasional eruptive events were recorded. An eruption at 1433 on 12 March generated an ash plume that rose 2.1 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 9-16 March. Gray-to-white ash plumes rose 600-800 m above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 1,600-1,700 tons per day on 11 and 16 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-17 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions on 8 March that sent ash plumes up to 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted NE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 17 March multiple discrete ash plumes from Ibu rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW based on satellite images and weather models. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-15 March ash plumes from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Kerinci | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 1633 on 14 March a brown ash emission rose 500 m above Kerinci’s summit and drifted WNW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy was visible during 6-13 March, and the number of hot avalanches descending the flanks in all directions significantly increased. A bright thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images, and gas-and-steam plume containing some ash drifted 135 km E, NE, and N during 8-9 and 12 March. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia : Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) reported that three gas-and-ash emissions from Nevado del Ruiz recorded on 10 March (at 0742, 1029, and 1055) rose 345-700 m above the summit and drifted SW, S, and SE. Minor ashfall was reported around the volcano and in towns downwind. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-colour scale).

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level for Nevados de Chillán to Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale, on 5 March. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián, and stated that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the ENE flank.

Nishinoshima | Japan : During an overflight on 9 March the Japan Coast Guard (JCG) noted continuous activity from the central vent at Nishinoshima, including an ash plume rising as high as 1 km. Ejected material landed near the cone’s base. Lava from the NE side of the central vent flowed 1 km N and into the sea. Steam plumes rose along the E coast where lava entered the sea. Lava also effused from a vent on the SW flank of the cone. Discoloured yellow-green water was visible offshore to the W, N, and E. Sulfur dioxide emissions had increased since 17 February measurements. The marine exclusion zone was defined as a radius of about 2.6 km from the island.

Reykjanes | Iceland : On 18 March IMO raised the Aviation colour Code for Reykjanes to Yellow noting that recent InSAR and GPS data indicated that during the second week of March deformation had restarted. The uplift was concentrated in the same place as that recorded in January-February, though at a slower rate. The cause of the deformation was likely an intrusion of magma at 4.5 km depth. A large (M 4.6) earthquake was recorded on 12 March and located 3.5 km NE of Thorbjorn, possibly connected to the inflation. A sequence of aftershocks lasted for a few days and was characterized by eight earthquakes over M 3 and about 80 events with magnitudes between 2 and 3. Since the large event a total of 850 earthquakes were recorded in the area.

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported a minor increase in tremor amplitude at Rincón de la Vieja beginning at 0200 on 12 March. At 1845 on 14 March an eruption was recorded by the seismic network, but weather conditions prevented visual confirmation; strong tremor was recorded during 1845-2030. Tremor levels increased at around 0300 on 15 March and stopped around 0100 on 17 March, possibly indicating a small eruption.

Semisopochnoi | United States : Seismicity at Semisopochnoi increased over a period of a few days and by 15 March was characterized by nearly continuous tremor and frequent signals indicating small explosions. The unrest prompted AVO to raise the Aviation colour Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch on 15 March. A robust steam plume rising from the N cone of Mount Cerberus and minor ash deposits around the crater rim were visible in a clear satellite image acquired on 16 March.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 6-13 March. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : Lava and a possible new cone in Shishaldin’s summit crater were visible in a satellite image on 14 March prompting AVO to raise the Volcano Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation colour Code to Orange. Weak but elevated seismicity was also recorded along with small explosion signals during 14-17 March. Elevated surface temperatures, consistent with lava in the summit crater, were identified in satellite images during 15-17 March. A small steam plume rising from the summit crater was visible in a webcam image on 17 March.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that during 28 February-6 March incandescence from Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible nightly. Occasional eruptive events generated ash plumes that rose as high as 900 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Taal | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that during 11-17 March weak steam plumes at Taal rose 50-100 m above Volcano Island lake and drifted SW and NE. According to the Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) there were a total of 4,131 people in 11 evacuation centers, and an additional 17,563 displaced people were staying at other locations as of 11 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS recommended no entry onto Volcano Island, the area defined as the Permanent Danger Zone.

Yasur | Vanuatu : Based on webcam images and satellite data the Wellington VAAC reported that during on 13 and 17 March low-level ash plumes from Yasur rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and SE.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 11 March 2020 – 17 March 2020

Antillanca Volcanic Complex : On 11 March SERNAGEOMIN raised the Alert Level for the Antillanca Volcanic Complex to Yellow because of increased seismicity near Casablanca stratovolcano. Volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes began to be recorded in August 2019 and were located about 6.3 km NE of the stratovolcano. During 31 January-1 February a total of 131 VT events were located to the W and NW; the two largest events were M 3.1 and 3.2. A swarm of 73 VT events were detected on 9 March with epicenters located 2.4 km NNW and a maximum local magnitude of 1.8.

Kanlaon | Philippines : PHIVOLCS reported that ground-deformation data at Kanlaon indicated long-term slow inflation of the volcano since 2017, slow inflation of the lower flanks since May 2019, and notable inflation of the upper flanks beginning near the end of January 2020. The seismic network recorded a total of 80 volcanic earthquakes since 9 March; 77 of them were low-frequency events associated with magmatic fluids. The deformation and seismic data both indicated unrest; PHIVOLCS raised the Alert Level to 1 (on a scale of 0-5) on 11 March and reminded the public to remain outside of the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone. During 12-17 March there were between two and eight volcanic earthquakes recorded daily.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 4 March 2020 – 10 March 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 2-9 March incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. Occasional eruptive events were recorded. An eruption at 0457 on 7 March generated an ash plume that rose 1.3 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-10 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 1-2 and 5 March that sent ash plumes up to 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted S and E. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported continuing eruptive activity at Etna’s Voragine Crater (VOR), New Southeast Crater (NSEC), and Northeast Crater (NEC) during 24 February-1 March. Strombolian explosions from the vent at the top of the cone in VOR crater ejected pieces of lava sometimes 150-200 m above the vent. Ash plumes rose from the vent and rapidly dissipated. Strombolian activity from a vent at the base of the N flank of the cone was observed on 29 February. Lava continued to effuse from the vent on top of a building lava mound on the S flank of the cone and flow into the adjacent Bocca Nuova Crater. Activity at NEC was characterized by discontinuous Strombolian activity and periodic emissions of very diffuse ash plumes. During 24-25 February observers noted continuous diffuse ash emissions at NSEC, originating from a cone in the saddle area.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 March multiple discrete ash plumes from Ibu rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE based on satellite images, weather models, and information from PVMBG. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kerinci | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 0710 on 4 March, 1625 on 5 March, and 0655 on 6 March brown ash emissions rose 200-500 m above Kerinci’s summit and drifted NW and NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy was visible during 28 February-6 March, and a bright thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images those same days. A gas-and-steam plume containing some ash drifted 60 km WNW on 2 March. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 28 February-6 March. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Stromboli | Aeolian Islands (Italy) : INGV reported that during 24 February-3 March activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing explosive activity mainly from three vents in Area N (north crater area) and at least three vents in Area C-S (south-central crater area). Variable-intensity explosions from Area N occurred at a rate of 7-10 events per hour and ejected lapilli and bombs 80-150 m above the vents. Ejected tephra fell onto the flanks and some blocks rolled down the Sciara del Fuoco to the coast. Explosions from Area C-S occurred at a rate of 2-9 events per hour and ejected coarse material mixed with ash to heights less than 150 m above the vents.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that during 28 February-6 March incandescence from Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible nightly. Occasional eruptive events and two explosions were recorded; ash plumes rose as high as 900 m above the crater rim. Occasional eruption sounds were reported in a village 4 km SSW on 3 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Taal | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that during 4-10 March weak steam plumes rose 50-100 m above Taal’s Volcano Island lake and drifted SW and NE; moderate steam plumes rose 300-500 m and drifted SW during 8-9 March. According to the Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) there were a total of 4,212 people in 11 evacuation centers, and an additional 32,631 people were staying at other locations as of 6 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS recommended no entry onto Volcano Island, the area defined as the Permanent Danger Zone.

White Island | North Island (New Zealand) : On 10 March GeoNet reported that data collected during recent flights over White Island showed elevated gas emissions compared to previous measurements, though overall both carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide flux have decreased since the 9 December 2019 eruption. Thermal infrared data indicated that the fumarolic gases and the five lobes of lava in the main vent remained very hot; the hottest temperature was 746 degrees Celsius and was the highest temperature measured to date. Small-scale jetting occurred from the small pond that had formed in the vent area, similar to September-December 2019 activity. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 and the Aviation colour Code remained at Yellow.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 4 March 2020 – 10 March 2020

San Miguel | El Salvador : SNET stated that during 28 February-6 March there were no reports of noises or gas emissions at San Miguel from the network of local observers. Seismicity was stable; 50-60 low-magnitude earthquakes were recorded per hour with RSAM values between 40 and 98 units, lower than the normal values of 150. The sulfur dioxide emission flux was 517-808 tons per day.

Sangay | Ecuador : IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 3-10 March. Ash plumes rose 870-1,130 m above the summit and drifted NW and W based on Washington VAAC notices. Incandescent blocks rolled down the SW flank during 3-4 March. A seismic station recorded a lahar on 8 March.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : BNPB and PVMBG reported that on 3 March a pyroclastic flow was generated from collapsing material at the end of a 750-m-long lava flow on Semeru’s S flank. The pyroclastic flow lasted nine minutes based on seismic data, traveled as far as 2.3 km down the S flank, and was documented and reported at 1733 by the Malang Subagyo district Badan Penanggulangan Bencana Daerah (BPBD). During 3-8 March black-gray eruptive plumes rose 200 m above the summit, interspersed with 100-m-high white gas plumes. Incandescent material was ejected 10-50 m above the summit; lava flows 500-1,000 m long continued to be active in the Kembar, Bang, and Kobokan drainages (on the S flank). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was reminded to stay outside of the general 1-km radius from the summit and 4 km on the SSE flank.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 26 February 2020 – 3 March 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 25 February-2 March there were six explosions and three non-explosive eruptive events detected by the Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) seismic network. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.6 km above the crater rim and material was ejected 600-1,300 m away from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible every night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 25 February-2 March. Gray-to-white ash plumes rose 700 m above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high, ranging from 1,500 to 4,900 tons per day. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-29 February and 1 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SW, and W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions on 21, 25, and 27 February that sent ash plumes up to 2.9 km (9,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted S, SE, and NE; ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 22 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 27 February an ash plume from Ibu rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW based on satellite images and weather models. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 24 February-1 March lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.8 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Sometimes dense white plumes rose 150 m above the summit; foggy weather occasionally prevented observations. Incandescence from both summit craters was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Kerinci | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 0600 on 1 March and 0742 on 2 March brown ash emissions rose 400-500 m above Kerinci’s summit and drifted SSW and NE, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy was visible during 21-28 February, and a strong thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images those same days. A gas-and-steam plume containing some ash drifted 120 km E on 23 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Nishinoshima | Japan : The Japan Coast Guard (JCG) presented InSAR results from 17 November 2019 to 28 February 2020 showing growth of Nishinoshima’s central cone alomg with changes to the island’s surface and expansion of the coastline from lava flows. During an overflight on 17 February observers noted continuous activity from the central vent, including a diffuse ash plume rising about 600 m. Ejected material landed near the cone’s base. Lava flowed into the sea at the N and E coasts, causing a rising steam plume. Discoloured water had been seen on 4 February in an area 9 km S of the island but was not apparent during the overflight possibly due to weather conditions. The marine exclusion zone was defined as a radius of about 2.6 km from the island.

Pavlof | United States : AVO reported that seismic activity at Pavlof had decreased during the past several weeks, and no eruptive activity or summit emissions had been observed since minor steaming in late February. AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Normal and the Aviation colour Code to Green on 3 March.

Ruapehu | North Island (New Zealand) : GeoNet reported that a period of increased seismicity was detected at Ruapehu during 22-23 February. The series of volcanic earthquakes began with the largest event, a M 1.3, which was followed by smaller events. The data showed that the seismicity originated from a source 3 km below the summit. The amplitude of the volcanic tremor declined during 24-28 February and then again increased around 29 February-1 March. In response to the 22-23 February sequence, volcanologists collected lake water samples and measured gas emissions the week after. The temperature of the lake water suggested slow heating from 24 to 30 degrees Celsius. They observed upwelling of gray sediment and sulfur slicks on the surface of the water. Carbon dioxide and sulfur gas emissions had increased since last measured on 7 February. GeoNet noted that gas-flux and the increased seismicity remained within the normal ranges for Ruapehu; the Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (minor volcanic unrest) and the Aviation colour Code remained at Green.

Sabancaya | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that a daily average of 18 low- to medium-intensity explosions occurred at Sabancaya during 24 February-1 March. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2 km above the summit and drifted W, SW, and S. There was one thermal anomaly identified in satellite data, originating from the lava dome in the summit crater. On 26, 27, and 28 February at 1552, 1420, and 1300, respectively, lahars descended the Huayuray-Pinchollo drainage on the N flank. The lahars were small to moderate in size and blocked the Chivay-Cabanaconde road in the district of Cabanaconde. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.

Semisopochnoi | United States : No signs of eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi were detected in infrasound and satellite data over the previous several weeks, prompting AVO to lower the Aviation colour Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory on 26 February. A robust steam plume rose from the main vent that same day. Short bursts of tremor and earthquakes persisted during 26 February-3 March.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 21-28 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that during 21-28 February incandescence from Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible nightly. Occasional eruptive events and two explosions were recorded; ash plumes rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim. Blocks were ejected onto the flanks during 23-24 February. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Taal | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that during 26 February-2 March steam plumes rose 50-300 m above the vent and drifted SW and NE. According to the Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) there were a total of 4,314 people in 12 evacuation centers, and an additional 132,931 people were staying at other locations as of 3 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS recommended no entry onto Volcano Island, the area defined as the Permanent Danger Zone.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 26 February 2020 – 3 March 2020

Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 30 February-2 March ash plumes from Bagana rose to 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and N.

Great Sitkin | Andreanof Islands (USA) : AVO reported that seismicity at Great Sitkin had increased during the previous month and by 26 February was above background levels; the Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was raised to Advisory. No eruptive activity was evident in geophysical or satellite data.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : BPPTKG reported that at 0522 on 3 March an eruption at Merapi produced an ash plume that rose 6 km above the crater rim and pyroclastic flows that descended the SSE flank less than 2 km. The ash plume drifted mainly NE and caused ashfall within 10 km, particularly in areas to the N including Musuk and Cepogo Boyolali. Video of the event showed incandescent material being ejected above the summit and lightning in the ash cloud. The report noted that there were no clear precursors for the eruption. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

San Miguel | El Salvador : SNET reported that during 23-28 February activity at San Miguel was low. An increase in the number of very small-magnitude earthquakes was recorded by the VSM seismic station located on the upper N flank. RSAM values were between 45 and 75 units, lower than the normal values of 150.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during February and 1-2 March gray eruptive plumes rose 200-500 m above Semeru’s summit. Beginning on 26 February incandescent material was ejected 10-50 m above the Jonggring-Seloko Crater, and by 2 March lava flows had traveled 500-1,000 m down the Kembar, Bang, and Kobokan drainages (on the S flank). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was reminded to stay outside of the general 1-km radius from the summit and 4 km on the SSE flank.

Yasur | Vanuatu : Based on webcam images, satellite data, and pilot observations the Wellington VAAC reported that during 2-3 March low-level ash plumes from Yasur rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 19 February 2020 – 25 February 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 17-25 February there were 34 explosions and 19 non-explosive eruptive events detected by the Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) seismic network. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim and material was ejected 600-1,100 m away from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible every night. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was elevated at 1,900 tons/day on 20 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-25 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) :Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 18-19 February that sent ash plumes up to 2.3 km (7,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted SE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 18, 20, and 22 February ash plumes from Ibu rose to 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, S, and SW. PVMBG stated that at 1113 on 20 February a white-to-gray ash plume rose at least 400 m above the summit (6,800 ft a.s.l.) and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite data and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 23 February an ash plume from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy was visible during 14-21 February, and a thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images those same days. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that very small eruptive events recorded at Kuchinoerabujima’s Shindake Crater during 20-21 February generated whitish plumes that rose 200 m above the crater rim. No changes were observed during field visits on those two days. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 400-600 tons per day during 20-23 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5).

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that the volume of Merapi’s summit lava dome decreased after the 13 February eruption which produced a 2-km-tall ash plume, ejected material within 1 km, and caused ashfall within a 10-km radius. The dome volume the day before the event was estimated at 407,000 cubic meters, and afterwards (19 February) was reduced to 291,000 cubic meters. Visual observations during 17-23 February were mostly hindered due to inclement weather conditions, though on 18 February a white plume was seen rising 100 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 18-22 February white-and-gray plumes from Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater generally rose as high as 1.9 km above the rim and drifted mainly SE. An explosion recorded at 1924 on 19 February generated an ash plume that rose 2 km. White plumes rose 100 m during 23-25 February. The volcano Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián, and stated that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the ENE flank.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that during an overflight of Popocatépetl on 18 February volcanologists noted no significant morphological changes at the summit crater; the inner crater was 350 m in diameter and 100-150 m deep, and the crater floor was covered with tephra. Each day during 18-25 February there were 130-263 steam-and-gas emissions from the summit crater. As many as nine low- to moderate-level explosions were recorded each day, generating gas plumes with minor amounts of ash that drifted N, NW, and SW. An explosion at 1737 on 19 February produced an ash plume that rose 1.2 km above the crater rim and drifted NW, and ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Reventador | Ecuador : IG reported that during 18-24 January seismic data from Reventador’s network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Daily gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater rim and drifted NW, W, and SW. Incandescent blocks rolled 600-700 m down the flanks during 18-21 February. Weather sometimes prevented views of the summit area.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 17-23 February eruptive events at Semeru generated ash plume that rose around 400 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 15-21 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that during 14-21 February incandescence from Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible nightly. An eruption on 19 February produced a grayish-white ash plume that rose 1.6 km above the crater rim. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village, 4 km SSW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Taal | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that during 19-24 February steam plumes rose 50-100 m above the vent and drifted SW. Sulfur dioxide emissions were below detectable limits during 19-20 February. According to the Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) there were a total of 4,113 people in 15 evacuation centers, and an additional 191,451 people were staying at other locations as of 25 February. PHIVOLCS recommended no entry onto Volcano Island, the area defined as the Permanent Danger Zone.

White Island | North Island (New Zealand) : On 19 February GeoNet reported that White island remained at an elevated state of unrest, confirmed by two overflights of the island for visual observations and data collection. Results from a gas data showed a steady decline on both carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide flux, though levels were still slightly elevated. Thermal infrared data indicated that the fumarolic gases and the five lobes of lava in the main vent remained very hot at 660 degrees Celsius. A small pond of water had formed in the vent area and small-scale jetting was occurring, similar to September-December 2019 activity. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 and the Aviation colour Code remained at Yellow.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 19 February 2020 – 25 February 2020

Huaynaputina | Peru : IGP reported that during 11 and 20-21 February small- to moderate-sized lahars descended the El Volcán drainage, on the S flank of Huaynaputina, and traveled to within 500 m of Quinistaquillas, in the province of Sánchez Cerro, Moquegua region.

Reykjanes | Iceland : On 25 February IMO reported that seismic activity at Reykjanes, in an area N of the town of Grindavík, had significantly decreased during the previous few days, and inflation was not detected in GPS and InSAR data. The Aviation colour Code was lowered to Green. Preliminary data suggested a small deflation signal beginning mid-February, though further analysis was needed for confirmation. The report warned the public not to explore lava tubes in the Eldvörp area as gas measurements showed a dangerous level of oxygen depletion; there are no pre-unrest measurements existing for comparison.

San Miguel | El Salvador : SNET reported that local observers of San Miguel reported a series of rumbling noises that occurred from 1900 on 20 February to 0750 on 21 February. The report noted an increase in amplitude of microearthquakes and minor gas emissions form the main crater. Sulfur dioxide levels had also increased. Beginning at 1055 on 22 February an ash emission that lasted 10 minutes long resulted in a small gas-and-ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim. Minor ashfall was reported in the area of Piedra Azul, 5 km SW. RSAM peaked at 510 units during the period of emissions, above the normal values of 150, as recorded by station VSM located on the upper N flank. The number of low-amplitude tremor events increased after a quiet period of about 11 hours and were associated with gas emissions; RSAM was 33-97 units and minor gas plumes were visible rising 400 m during 23-24 February.

Semisopochnoi | United States : AVO reported that intermittent, low-level tremor was detected at Semisopochnoi during 19-25 February. Brief periods of elevated tremor were recorded during 19-20 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 12 February 2020 – 18 February 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 10-17 February there were 13 explosions and seven non-explosive eruptive events detected by the Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) seismic network. Ash plumes rose as high as 1.4 km above the crater rim and material was ejected 600-900 m away from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 10-17 February. Ash plumes rose 900-1,300 m above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate continued to be at a high level. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-17 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 12-13 February that sent ash plumes up to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted E and caused ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that there were 8-16 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 12-18 February, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-22 km SW and W. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Alotenángo (8 km ENE), and La Soledad (11 km N). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in communities within an 8-km radius. Incandescent material was ejected 150-500 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), Honda, and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. Lava flows in the Ceniza drainage were 700-800 m long during 13-17 February and lengthened to 1.2 km during 17-18 February.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that on 16 February an ash plume from Ibu rose at least 800 m above the summit (6,800 ft a.s.l.) and drifted W. The Darwin VAAC stated that on 17 February an ash plume rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kerinci | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 0600 on 16 February and at 0048 on 17 February brown ash emissions rose 400 m above Kerinci’s summit and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy was visible during 7-14 February, and a thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images those same days. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 7-12 February white plumes rose as high as 400 m above Merapi’s summit lava dome. The volume of the dome was an estimated 407,000 cubic meters on 12 February based on drone photos, similar to 19 November 2019 measurements. An eruption at 0516 on 13 February lasted two and a half minutes and produced an ash plume that rose about 2 km above the summit and drifted NW. Ashfall was reported in areas within a 10-km radius especially to the S, including the villages of Hargobinangun, Glagaharjo, and Kepuharjo. Video of the event showed incandescent material being ejected above the lava dome and lightning in the ash cloud. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nishinoshima | Japan : Based on satellite images and a pilot observation, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 15 February an ash plume from Nishinoshima rose to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.
Sangay | Ecuador | 2.005°S, 78.341°W | Elevation 5286 m

IG reported that a permanent monitoring station located near the base of Sangay was repaired during 26 January-1 February and had begun to again transmit data in real time. The technician reported constant ash emissions during the expedition. A high level of activity persisted at Sangay during 12-18 February, though weather clouds often prevented visual confirmation. Ash, steam, and gas plumes rose 570-870 m above the summit and drifted W and SW according to Washington VAAC advisories. A webcam recorded lava blocks descending the SE flank on 17 February.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 7-14 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that during 7-14 February incandescence from Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible nightly. Very small eruptions during 9-10 February produced ash plumes that rose 700 m above the crater rim. Rumbling and ashfall was reported in a village 4 km SSW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 12 February 2020 – 18 February 2020

Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that at 1211 on 13 February a very small eruption at Kuchinoerabujima’s Shindake Crater produced a grayish white plume that rose 300 m above the crater rim and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5).

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that the longest-travelling lava flow that began to effuse on 10 February from fissures on the E flank of Piton de la Fournaise’s Dolomieu Crater was no longer advancing by 13 February. The end of the longest active flow was located below Marco Crater around 1,900 m elevation, based on field an aerial observations. A cone was building over three vents and had grown to 30 m high; lava fountains from the three vents rose 10-15 m above the rim of the cone. Tremor levels rapidly decreased around 1400 on 15 February, though inclement weather conditions prevented visual confirmation of changes to the surficial activity. Observers noted no activity while aboard an overflight during 0730-0800 on 16 February, though tremor continued to be recorded. By 1412 tremor ceased, signifying the end of lava effusion.

Reykjanes | Iceland : On 15 February IMO reported that seismicity at Reykjanes, in an area N of the town of Grindavík, remained above background levels even though activity had been decreasing since the end of January. Two earthquakes larger than M 3 were detected; one of them, an M 3.1, was recorded at 0826 on 14 February. The rate of deformation had slightly increased. The Aviation Code remained at Yellow.

Semisopochnoi | United States : A series of explosions and tremor bursts at Semisopochnoi were detected by the seismic network beginning on 14 February, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Colour Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. Tremor bursts lasting from three to twelve minutes every few hours were recorded the next day. Ash plumes were not visible, though a weather cloud deck persisted between 1.5 and 4.6 km (5,000 and 15,000 ft) a.s.l. Seismic data continued to record small explosions and tremor bursts lasting from six to ten minutes every few hours on 16 February, but by 17 February there were almost no events recorded. Weather clouds continued to obscure views of the volcano.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 5 February 2020 – 11 February 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 3-7 February there were 16 explosions and 21 non-explosive eruptive events detected by the Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) seismic network. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.2 km above the crater rim and material was ejected 1,000-1,300 m away from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible at night. An explosion at 0126 on 10 February produced an ash plume that rose 1.4 km and ejected material as far as 1.8 km away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-11 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 1-7 February that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.; ash plumes drifted E and S. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-6 February multiple discrete ash plumes from Ibu, identified in satellite images, rose to 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. An ongoing thermal anomaly was also visible. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : RVO reported that the eruption at Kadovar continued during 1 January-7 February with frequent (hours to days) Vulcanian explosions from Main Vent at the summit. The explosions ejected rocks and ash plumes that rose 300-400 m above the vent and drifted NE and E. Residents on Blup Blup (15 km N) reported rumbling and nighttime summit incandescence. Volcanic plumes were sometimes observable in Wewak (105 km W). The Darwin VAAC stated that on 6 February an ash plume rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy was visible during 31 January-7 February, and a thermal anomaly was identified those same days in satellite images. Vulcanian activity was recorded on 31 January and 4 February; explosions generated ash plumes that rose to 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 145 km E. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that during 6-10 February a series of eruptive events at Anak Krakatau generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km-radius hazard zone from the crater.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 5-11 February there were 57-154 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. An explosion at 1754 on 5 February produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and drifted NNE. A minor explosion at 0029 on 9 February ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. An explosion at 0233 on 10 February produced an ash plume that rose 1 km and drifted NE, and ejected incandescent material as far as 500 m down the flanks. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 1-7 February. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : On 6 February AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin decreased during the previous week (though remained slightly above background levels), along with the surface temperatures at the summit identified in satellite data. AVO lowered the Aviation colour Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory since the eruption appeared to have paused or ceased.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the Week 5 February 2020 – 11 February 2020

Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that after the 3 February eruption at Kuchinoerabujima’s Shindake Crater the number of volcanic earthquakes decreased, and very small eruptive events occurred intermittently though 5 February and on 9 February. A large amount of ashfall (including lapilli up to 2 cm in diameter) was confirmed on the SE flank during field observations on 3 and 6 February. Thermal image observations revealed 5-km-long pyroclastic flow deposits on the SW flank. The number of volcanic earthquakes began increasing on 9 February and continued to be elevated the next day. A large-amplitude volcanic tremor event was accompanied by fluctuating tilt at 1318 on 11 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5).

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that a seismic crisis at Piton de la Fournaise began at 1027 on 10 February, accompanied by rapid deformation. Volcanic tremor began just 23 minutes later, at 1050, heralding the start of a new eruption. During an overflight conducted during 1300-1330 in partly cloudy weather, observers noted that several fissures had opened on the E flank of Dolomieu Crater, between the crater rim and 2,000 m elevation. The fissures all were at least 1 km long and produced lava fountains that were no higher than 10 m. Lava flows had traveled E to 1,700 m elevation by 1315. In the evening mapping of the lava flows based on satellite data revealed a larger flow field that what was visually observed during the overflight hours before. Lava flows spanned from the E to the S, with the farthest flow traveling E to 1,400 m elevation. The data showed that the fissures at the highest elevation had opened in the same area as those from the 18 February and 11 June 2019 eruptions.

Reykjanes | Iceland : On 7 February IMO reported that data collected during the previous week indicated that a magma body was located 3-5 km beneath Reykjanes. Earthquake activity had decreased during the previous two days, though inflation was ongoing, reaching 5 cm. The Aviation Code remained at Yellow.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 5 February an ash plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l., or 400 m above the crater rim, and drifted SE based on satellite images and weather models. PVMBG noted that on 7 February a gray ash plume rose 400 m and drifted S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Taal | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that whitish steam plumes rose as high as 300 m above Taal’s main vent during 5-11 February and drifted SW. Sulfur dioxide emissions ranged from values below detectable limits to a high of 116 tonnes per day (on 8 February). Weak steaming (plumes 10-20 m high) from ground cracks was visible along the Daang Kastila trail which connects the N part of Volcano Island to the N part of the main crater. According to the Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) there were a total of 17,088 people in 110 evacuation centers, and an additional 211,729 people were staying at other locations as of 10 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS recommended no entry onto Volcano Island and Taal Lake, nor into towns W of the island within a 7-km radius.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the Week 29 January 2020 – 04 February 2020

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 27 January-3 February there were 26 explosions and 33 non-explosive eruptive events detected by the Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) seismic network. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.2 km above the crater rim and material was ejected 700-1,300 m away from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was very high at 4,700 tons/day on 31 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 27 January-3 February. Plumes rose 1.1 km above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high, ranging from 1,900 to 3,400 tons per day during 28-29 and 31 January and 3 February. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Bulusan | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS lowered the Alert Level for Bulusan to 0 (on a scale of 0-5) on 25 January, noting that activity at the volcano was at baseline levels. Specifically, sulfur dioxide flux had been below detectable levels since 2018, the frequency of volcanic earthquakes had been at baseline levels (0-2 earthquakes/day) since May 2019, and overall ground deformation data indicated that there was no pressurization from subsurface magma. Weak gas emissions from hydrothermal activity continued. PHIVOLCS reminded the public of the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29 January-4 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, S, and SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 24-31 January that sent ash plumes up to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l.; ash plumes drifted E. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 29 January-2 February white-to-gray plumes rose 200-800 m above Ibu’s summit; plumes drifted S on 2 February. Weather clouds prevented visual observations during 3-4 February. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 2 February an ash plume from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE.

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 27 January-2 February lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.8 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Sometimes dense white plumes rose 200 m above the summit. Incandescence from both summit craters was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Kerinci | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that during 1-3 February brown ash plumes rose 150-300 m above Kerinci’s summit; ash plumes drifted NE on 1 February. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy was visible during 24-31 January, and a thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 27-28 and 30 January. Vulcanian activity was recorded on 30 January; explosions generated ash plumes that rose to 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 282 km E. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 28 January-4 February white gas plumes from Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater rose as high as 900 m above the rim and drifted E, ESE, and SE. Minor explosions during 28-29 January ejected incandescent blocks that were visible at night. At 1356 on 30 January an explosion generated a gas-and-ash plume that rose 3.4 km above the crater rim; parts of the plume collapsed, generating pyroclastic flows that traveled NE and SE. Two thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images, one from vent CE4 (November 2019) and the second from a new vent named CE5, formed 60 m NW of the center of CE4. There had been no advancement of the lava flows (L1, L2, L3, and L4) since 24 November 2019. The number of long-period earthquakes and tremor associated with explosions both considerably decreased after December 2019. The volcano Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián, and stated that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the ENE flank.

Sangay | Ecuador : IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 27 January-4 February, though weather clouds often prevented visual confirmation. Ash, steam, and gas plumes rose 880-1,200 m above the summit and drifted W and SW during 27-29 January. Minor ashfall was reported in Púngala and in several Chimborazo province communities during 27-28 February. A pyroclastic flow descended the SE flank on 28 January, reaching the Volcán River and causing secondary lahars in the river. Incandescent blocks rolled down the SE flank on 29 January. Minor ashfall was reported in the province of Chimborazo (W), particularly in the towns of Cebadas (35 km WNW) and Palmira (46 km W). On 30 January residents in the town of Alao (20 km NW) reported that vegetation was covered with fine white ash. An ash emission rose 570 m above the summit and drifted W on 31 January. Ashfall was reported in Macas (42 km SE) the next day. Gas-and-steam plumes rose up to 200 m and drifted W on 2 February. Incandescent blocks rolled down the SE flank on 3 February.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that ash plumes from Semeru rose 400-500 m above the crater rim and drifted N on 30 January as well as 2 and 4 February. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale from 1-4); the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the active crater and 4 km away on the SSE flank.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 23-24 and 27-30 January. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that seismic activity at Shishaldin remained above background levels during 29 January-4 February. Weakly- to moderately-elevated surface temperatures were sometimes identified in satellite images. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Ulawun | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : RVO reported that during 17-31 January white vapor plumes rose from Ulawun’s Main Crater and weak, diffuse white vapor rose from the WSW flank fissure. Lahars were detected mid-month. Seismic activity was low with RSAM values below 200 units. The Alert Level remained at Stage 1.

White Island | North Island (New Zealand) : On 4 February GeoNet reported that White island remained at an elevated state of unrest. Temperatures at the vent area remained very hot at more than 550-570 degrees Celsius. Gas emissions measured during an overflight on 30 January had decreased compared to the previous week but remained at high levels. No changes to the vent area, the receding lake, or the area of lava extrusion were visually apparent. Continuing movement of the back-crater wall W of the 1914 landslide deposits was identified in satellite images, though not noted during the overflight. According to the New Zealand Police another person died as a result from the eruption, bringing the total number of deaths to 21. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 and the Aviation colour Code remained at Yellow.