Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 10 July – 16 July 2019

Great Sitkin | Andreanof Islands (USA) : On 15 July AVO reported that seismicity at Great Sitkin had decreased to background levels during the past few weeks with no evidence of eruptive activity in geophysical or satellite data. The Aviation colour Code was lowered to Green and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 July an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, based on satellite data and weather models.

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO increased the Aviation colour Code for Shishaldin to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory on 12 July following several weeks of increasing seismicity and elevated temperatures in the summit crater identified in satellite images. In addition incandescence in the crater was visible during an overflight. Seismic tremor continued to be elevated at least through 16 July.

Stromboli | Aeolian Islands (Italy) : INGV reported that the paroxysmal explosive sequence at Stromboli on 3 July changed the morphology of the crater terrace. The rim of the terrace facing the Sciara del Fuoco was removed, and the N1 and N2 vents in Area N (north crater area, NCA) had enlarged and merged into one. After the paroxysmal event explosive activity rapidly decreased, though it remained more intense than normal. The vents of Area C-S (South Central crater area) produced explosions regularly during 8-14 July, and fed lava flows that traveled about halfway down the Sciara del Fuoco. Material from the lava-flow fronts rolled all the way to the coastline. A new lava flow from Area N (north crater area, NCA) began at 1900 on 14 July.

Ubinas | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that seismic activity at Ubinas remained elevated during 1-15 July; volcano-tectonic events averaged 279 per day and long-period events (indicating fluid movement) averaged 116 events per day. Minor bluish emissions rose from the crater. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (on a 4-level scale).

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Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 3 July – 9 July 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that at 1044 on 4 July an explosion at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) generated an ash plume that rose 3.2 km above the crater rim and ejected material 1.1 km from the vent. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that minor explosive events on 4 and 5 July at Asosan’s Nakadake Crater ejected sediment from the vent. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 1,300 tons per day on 5 July. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that minor explosive events on 4 and 5 July at Asosan’s Nakadake Crater ejected sediment from the vent. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 1,300 tons per day on 5 July. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Colima | Mexico : Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia – Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, mainly from the NE side of the crater, and three small explosions were recorded during 29 June-5 July. A thermal camera located S of the volcano recorded thermal anomalies associated with emissions. Weather conditions sometimes prevented observations of the crater.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-9 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 28 June-5 July that sent ash plumes up to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted in multiple directions. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images on 29 June and 1 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 July an ash plume from Ibu rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, based on satellite images and weather models. An intermittent thermal anomaly was also visible. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 30 June-3 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was visible in satellite images during 1-3 July, and ash plumes drifted as far as 85 km E and SE during 1-2 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network recorded eight eruptive events during 1-7 July. The events were not followed by visible ash emissions, though observations were hindered by weather conditions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 28 June-4 July the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not significantly change and was an estimated 475,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images taken on 4 July. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE flank, generating one block-and-ash flow that traveled 1.1 km down the Gendol drainage on 1 July. White plumes rose as high as 200 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that an explosive event at Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater recorded at 0550 on 9 July was associated with a long-period earthquake signal. The explosion ejected incandescent material onto areas near the crater. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.

Sangay | Ecuador : IG reported that a new eruption at Sangay began on 7 May and was continuing as of 3 July. Activity was concentrated at two eruptive centers: the Central Crater and the Ñuñurcu dome (located 190 m SSE of Central Crater). Sporadic explosions at Central Crater produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted W and SW. The Ñuñurcu dome fed at least three lava flows that traveled down the SE flank. Collapses of the lava-flow fronts generated small pyroclastic flows and numerous block flows that traveled as far as 3,888 m elevation. Staff of the Parque Nacional Sangay observed atypical sedimentation consisting of volcanic material at the confluence of the Upano River and its tributary, the Volcán River, 23 km SE of the summit. Areas of steaming in the Volcán River were possibly from hot blocks originating from the volcano. Residents of Macas (42 km SSE) reported increased turbidity in the Upano from pyroclastic material.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-5 July ash plumes from Sangeang Api were visible in satellite images rising to 2.1-2.3 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SW and W. During 6-9 July multiple ash plumes rose to 3-4.6 km (10,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NW, and SW. Thermal anomalies were visible on 4 and 8 July.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 28 June-5 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 3 July – 9 July 2019

Manam | Papua New Guinea : According to the United Nations in Papua New Guinea an estimated 1,410 people from seven villages remained affected from the 27 June eruption of Manam; as many as 455 homes and many gardens had been destroyed. The Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 July ash plumes rose to 5.5-6.1 km (18,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW.

Semisopochnoi | United States : An increase in seismicity above background levels on 4 July at Semisopochnoi prompted AVO to raise the Aviation colour Code to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). Elevated seismicity continued through at least 9 July. No eruptive activity was detected in regional infrasound data, and cloudy conditions obscured satellite views of the volcano.

Stromboli | Aeolian Islands (Italy) : An intense paroxysmal explosive sequence at Stromboli on 3 July resulted in injuries to tourists climbing the volcano and one death. INGV surveillance cameras recorded intensification of Strombolian activity at the N1 and N2 vents in Area N (north crater area, NCA) and vent S2 in Area C-S (South Central crater area), and spattering at S1 and C in Area C-S. An explosion from Area C-S at 1459 was followed by lava effusion and a flow that traveled into the upper part of Sciara del Fuoco. At different times during 1543-1545 lava overflowed from all vents and a strong explosion occurred at N1 at 1545. The paroxysmal phase began at 1546; two lateral blasts presumably from Area C-S were recorded at 1546:10 and 1546:20, just 10 seconds apart from each other. The main paroxysmal explosion, at 1546:40 ejected incandescent material that fell onto the flanks and generated an ash plume rose 4 km above the summit that drifted SW. Material from the lateral explosions and eruption column collapse generated two highly turbulent pyroclastic flows that reached the sea. Hot material set fire to vegetation on the W side of the island. Strombolian activity resumed at 1559, though the explosions were more intense than normal. Spattering from Area C-S continued on 4 July, feeding lava flows that continued to enter the ocean.

Ulawun | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : RVO reported that diffuse white plumes rose from Ulawun’s summit crater and the North Valley vent during 1-4 July, and from the summit only during 5-9 July. The seismic station located 11 km NW of the volcano recorded three volcanic earthquakes and some sporadic, short-duration, volcanic tremors during 1-3 July. The seismic station 2.9 km W of the volcano was restored on 4 July and recorded small sub-continuous tremors. Some discrete high-frequency volcanic earthquakes were also recorded on most days. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 100 tonnes per day on 4 July. According to the United Nations in Papua New Guinea 7,318 people remained displaced within seven sites because of the 26 June eruption.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 26 June – 2 July 2019

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26 June-2 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Ebeko was identified in satellite images on 23 June; weather clouds obscured views of the volcano on the other days during 21-28 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was visible in satellite images on 23 and 26 June, and a gas-and-steam plume with some ash content drifted E on 26 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network recorded periods of increased activity with three eruptive events detected during 25-26 June, four events detected on 1 July, and one event on 2 July. The event was not followed by visible ash emissions, though observations were hindered by weather conditions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2 km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 27 June ash plumes from Sangeang Api rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. A thermal anomaly was also visible. On 29 June a discrete ash puff that rose to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted NW, and steam emissions were ongoing.

Santa Maria | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported increased activity at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex in a special bulletin posted on 2 July. They note that during the previous two years activity was characterized as low, with 10-15 weak explosions per day, and emissions composed mainly of water vapor with minor ash content. Beginning on 28 June the seismic network recorded a gradual increase of the number and intensity of explosions, with 35-40 events per day. These explosions were weak-to-moderate intensity and produced ash plumes that rose 1-1.3 km above the complex and drifted S and SW. Ashfall was recorded in areas downwind including Patzulín, El Faro, Horizontes, Las Marías, Loma Linda, and San Marcos Palajunoj. Block avalanches descended the SE, S, and SW flanks and sometimes generated ash plumes.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 0830 on 26 June an eruption at Semeru produced an ash plume that rose around 600 m above the summit and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale from 1-4); the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the active crater and 4 km away on the SSE flank.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 21-28 June. Explosions on 24 and 27 June generated ash plumes that rose to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SW, respectively. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Stromboli | Aeolian Islands (Italy) : INGV reported that during 30 June-2 July activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing low-to-medium intensity Strombolian explosions and degassing from multiple vents within the crater terrace. A high-energy explosion from vent C in Area C-S (South Central crater area) was recorded at 2303 on 25 June. The event lasted for about 28 seconds, ejected material that fell onto most of the crater terrace and into the Valle della Luna, and widened the vent.

White Island | North Island (New Zealand) : GeoNet reported that earthquake swarms at White Island were recorded in May and beginning on 20 June. Even though both swarms were interpreted as fault activity and no unusual volcanic activity was observed, GeoNet increased monitoring of the volcano. Earthquake swarms can increase the likelihood of landslides. A gas flight was conducted on 26 June because of the heightened monitoring and measurements were found to be 1,886 tons per day, three times the previous values measured in May. This was also the highest value recorded since 2013 and the second highest since regular measurements began in 2003. The Volcanic Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and the Aviation colour Code was raised to Yellow. Two more gas flights found lower emissions values; sulfur dioxide flux was 880 tons per day on 28 June and 693 tons per day on 29 June. In addition, new measurements found no changes to fumarolic temperatures and modeling of ground deformation suggested the ongoing earthquake swarm was tectonic and did not reflect increased volcanic activity. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered back to 1, with no change to the Aviation colour Code.

Yasur | Vanuatu : On 27 June the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) reported that recent observations and data from Yasur’s seismic network confirmed ongoing sometimes strong explosions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). VMGD reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 395-m-radius permanent exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds.

Rare Lake of Bubbling Lava Discovered on Remote Antarctic Island

A huge lake of sizzling hot lava has been discovered in a volcano on a remote sub-Antarctic island in the South Atlantic Ocean. It’s only the eighth lake of molten rock ever discovered on Earth.

Scientists from University College London (UCL) and the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) discovered this rare lava lake on Mount Michale volcano on Saunders Island in the South Sandwich Islands, about 1,000 miles (1,610 kilometers) north of the eastern edge of Antarctica’s Weddell Sea.

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Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 26 June – 2 July 2019

Manam | Papua New Guinea : RVO reported that RSAM values at Manam began increasing on 27 June and then spiked from 540 to over 1,400 within a short period of time (~30 min). According to news articles, residents reported hearing thundering noises around 0100 on 28 June. An eruption plume was visible in satellite images around 0620 drifting SW, around the time residents reported the start of the eruption. The Darwin VAAC issued a notice stating that by 0910 the ash plume had risen to 15.2 km (50,000 ft) a.s.l. and was drifting SW. Pyroclastic flows descended the W and NE flanks. About 3,775 people evacuated their homes. Additional ash plumes rose to 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, and by 1700 the higher-altitude plume had detached from the volcano and continued to drift SW. A thermal anomaly persisted on 29 June, and the next day an ash plume rose to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Air Niugini stopped all aircraft overnighting in Madang due to the eruption. On 30 June they resumed operations at Hoskins airport, after rerouting all flights out of nearby airports during 29-30 June.

Mauna Loa | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that during the previous several months earthquake and ground deformation rates at Mauna Loa were elevated above background levels. During the first half of 2018 the seismic network recorded fewer than 20 shallow, small-magnitude earthquakes per week. Following a significant earthquake swarm in October, the rate increased to at least 50 events per week beneath the summit, upper Southwest Rift Zone, and upper west flank. These locations were similar to those that preceded eruptions in 1975 and 1984. GPS and satellite RADAR data detected deformation consistent with recharge of the shallow magma storage system. The increased seismicity and deformation indicated that Mauna Loa is no longer at background levels, prompting HVO to raise the Aviation colour Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. HVO noted that an eruption was not imminent.

Raikoke | Kuril Islands (Russia) : SVERT and KVERT reported that during 25 June-1 July steam-and-gas plumes with ash rose 1.5-2 km above Raikoke and drifted WNW based on satellite images. The Aviation colour Code was lowered to Yellow on 25 June and then to Green on 27 June.

Ubinas | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) and INGEMMET reported that seismic activity at Ubinas remained elevated during 24-30 June; volcano-tectonic events averaged 200 per day and signals indicating fluid movement averaged 38 events per day. Emissions of gas, water vapor, and ash rose from the crater and drifted N and NE based on webcam views and corroborated with satellite data. According to a news article an eruption plume rose 400 m above the crater rim and drifted 10 km NE. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow (on a 4-level scale) on 27 June.

Ulawun | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : RVO reported that on 27 June diffuse white plumes rose from Ulawun’s summit crater and incandescence was visible from pyroclastic or lava flow deposits on the N flank from the significant eruption the day before. The seismic station located 11 km NW of the volcano recorded low RSAM values between 2 and 50. According to the Darwin VAAC a strong thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images, though not after 1200. Ash from 26 June explosions continued to move away from the volcano and became difficult to discern in satellite images by 1300, though a sulfur dioxide signal persisted; ash at 13.7 km (45,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted SW to SE and dissipated by 1620, and ash at 16.8 km (55,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted NW to NE and dissipated by 1857. RVO noted that at 1300 on 27 June satellite images captured an ash explosion not reported by ground-based observers likely due to cloudy weather conditions. The Alert Level was lowered to Stage 1. RSAM values slightly increased at 0600 on 28 June and fluctuated between 80 to 150 units afterwards. During 28-29 June diffuse white plumes continued to rise from the crater and from the North Valley vent. On 29 June a news article stated that around 11,000 people remained evacuated to shelters.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 19 June – 25 June 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 17-21 June very small eruptive events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were recorded, as well as periodic crater incandescence through 24 June. An explosion recorded on 24 June generated a plume that rose 1.6 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19-25 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 14-15 June that sent ash plumes up to 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted NW and NE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 21 June ash plumes from Ibu rose to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NE based on satellite images and weather models. During 24-25 June ash plumes rose to 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and ESE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 14-15 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was visible in satellite images on 14 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network recorded at least four eruptive events during 17-24 June. The events were not followed by visible ash emissions, though observations were hindered by weather conditions. A Surtseyan eruption was recorded by a local webcam around 0909 on 25 June. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 17-23 June the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 458,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating two block-and-ash flows that traveled 1.2 km down the Gendol drainage on 17 and 20 June. White plumes rose as high as 500 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Poas | Costa Rica : On 21 June OVSICORI-UNA reported that small, frequent phreatic eruptions from vent A (Boca Roja) were visible during good viewing conditions at Poás ejecting material less than 10 m high.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 19-25 June there were 26-201 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. An explosion at 2058 on 21 June produced an ash plume that rose 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted W, and ejected incandescent material less than 1 km onto the flanks. Minor ashfall was reported in areas downwind including the municipalities of Ozumba (18 km W), Atlautla (16 km W), and Ecatzingo (15 km SW) in the State of Mexico, and in Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW) in the State of Morelos. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 June an ash plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E based on satellite images.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 14-21 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Villarrica | Chile : According to POVI, observers near Villarrica during 20-21 June reported hearing noises from the volcano. The webcam recorded incandescent material ejected above the crater rim.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 19 June – 25 June 2019

Colima | Mexico : Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia – Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, mainly from the NE side of the crater, and small explosions continued to be recorded during 14-21 June. Weather conditions often prevented visual observations of the crater.

Raikoke | Kuril Islands (Russia) : A powerful eruption at Raikoke that began on 22 June (after 95 years of dormancy) was identified based on satellite observations, prompting KVERT and SVERT to raise the Aviation Color Code to Red. A series of at least nine explosions (six within the first 25 minutes) beginning at 0505 and continuing to about 1900 produced ash plumes, with a significant sulfur dioxide component, that rose 10-13 km (32,800-42,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE. Lightning was detected in the eruption plumes. Strong explosions at 1640 on 22 June generated ash plumes that rose to 10-11 km (32,800-36,100 ft) a.s.l. The ash and gas was entrained by jet streams and by a cyclone around the Komandorskiye Islands, causing parts of the material to spiral counterclockwise as it drifted farther NE. By 23 June the leading edge of the plume had drifted 2,000 km ENE. According to a news article, at least 40 flights in that region were diverted. On 23 June ash plumes continued to be visible, rising to 4.5 km and drifting NE. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. Gas-and-steam plumes possibly with some ash rose to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 60 km NW. That same day observers on a passing ship approached the island from the W side; they photographed the island and sent out a drone. An expedition member noted that the entire island was mantled with light-colored ash deposits up to several dozen centimeters thick. In some of the drainages and at the base of some drainages deposits were several meters thick. In some areas along the shoreline waves interacted with the deposits, causing steam explosions and dark brown steam emissions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.5 km above the summit crater rim and drifted W. Minor ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk (340 km NE) during 1830-1920. On 25 June ash plumes continued to be produced, rising as high as 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifting NW.

Ubinas | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that seismic activity at Ubinas increased suddenly on 18 June with signals indicting rock fracturing. During 21-24 June signals indicating fluid movement emerged and, beginning at 0700 on 24 June, webcams recorded ash, gas, and water vapor plumes rising from the crater. The plumes were visible in satellite images rising to 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting N, NE, and E. IGP recommended that the authorities raise the Alert Level to Yellow (on a 4 level scale).

Ulawun | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : RVO reported that RSAM values at Ulawun steadily increased during 24-25 June, and then sharply increased at around 0330 on 26 June. The RSAM values reflect an increase in seismicity dominated by volcanic tremor. An eruption began in the morning hours of 26 June with emissions of gray ash that over time became darker and more energetic. The plumes rose 1 km and drifted NW, causing minor ashfall in NW and SW areas. Locals heard roaring and rumbling during 0600-0800. The Darwin VAAC issued several notices about ash plumes visible in satellite data. These stated that during 1130-1155 ash plumes rose to 6.7-8.5 km (22,000-28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, while ash plumes that rose to 12.8-13.4 km (42,000-44,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted S and SW. A new pulse of activity generated ash plumes that by 1512 rose to 16.8 km (55,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and SE. By 1730 the ash plume had risen to 19.2 km (63,000 ft) a.s.l. and spread over 90 km in all directions. Ash from earlier ejections continued to drift S at 13.4 km a.s.l. and W at 8.5 km a.s.l. RVO stated that RSAM values peaked at about 2,500 units during 1330-1600, and then dropped to 1,600 units as the eruption subsided. RVO stated that parts of the ash plume at lower altitudes drifted W, causing variable amounts of ashfall in areas to the NW and SW. A pyroclastic flow descended the N flank. Residents evacuated to areas to the NE and W; a news article noted that around 3,000 people had gathered at a local church. According to another news source an observer in a helicopter reported a column of incandescent material rising from the crater, residents noted that the sky had turned black, and a main road in the N part of the island was blocked by volcanic material. Residents also reported a lava flow near Noau village and Eana Valley. RVO reported that the eruption ceased between 1800 and 1900. Incandescence visible on the N flank was either from a lava flow or pyroclastic flow deposits.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 12 June – 18 June 2019

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that an eruption at Agung, recorded by the seismic network at 0138 on 13 June, ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. The Darwin VAAC stated that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5.5 and 9.1 km (18,000 and 30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SW, respectively, based on webcam views and satellite data. By 0635 the ash plume had detached and by 1505 it was about 370 km S of Agung. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4 km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that inflation at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) began at 0500 on 11 June. At 1431 an explosion ejected material 1.2 km from the crater and generated an ash plume that rose 2.2 km above the crater rim. An explosion at 0921 on 13 June was followed by some deflation. Very small eruptive events were recorded during 14-17 June. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Azumayama | Honshu (Japan) : On 17 June JMA lowered the Alert Level for Azumayama to 1 (the lowest level on a 5-level scale), noting that deformation and elevated seismicity recorded in May had stabilized and decreased, respectively.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-16 and 18 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2 km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Ebeko was identified in satellite images on 12 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that there were 10-20 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 15-18 June, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-25 km W, SW, and E. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 200-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), El Jute (SE), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda ravines. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE).

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly at Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 8-14 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly at Klyuchevskoy was visible in satellite images during 11-13 June. Explosions during 11-12 June were recorded in video and satellite data generating ash plumes that rose to 5.5-6 km (18,000-19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 200 km WNW. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network recorded one eruptive event at 0719 on 12 June. The event was not followed by visible ash emissions, though observations were hindered by weather conditions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2 km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that Kuchinoerabujima’s Shindake Crater has not erupted since 3 February, and the number of shallow earthquakes located near the crater had been decreasing since then. Deeper volcanic earthquakes had not been recorded since 16 May. Sulfur dioxide emissions remained elevated. JMA lowered the Alert Level to 2 (the second lowest level on a scale of 1-5) on 12 June.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 June ash plumes from Manam rose to altitudes of 3-3.7 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE, based on satellite data and weather models. A thermal anomaly was also visible.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 15-18 June Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 30 m above the crater rim. A lava flow divided into two branches and traveled 300 m down the NW and W flanks, advancing towards Cerro Chino. Minor avalanches of material from lava flow fronts descended the flanks.

Poas | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 12 June small geyser-like eruptions at Poás ejected material less than 50 m high at a rate of about once per hour. At 0604 on 18 June an eruption that lasted about six minutes produced a plume of unknown height due to weather conditions. Residents reportedly heard several loud noises during 0610-0615 and observed an eruption plume rising from the crater. Ash fell in Cajón (12 km SW), San Luis de Grecia (11 km SW), Los Ángeles, San Miguel, San Isidro (28 km SE), and San Roque (23 km SSE). Whitish ash deposits surrounding the crater, especially on the W and S sectors, were visible in webcam images.

Santa Maria | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that on 12 June lahars descended Santa María’s Cabello de Ángel (a tributary of Nima I) and San Isidro (tributary of El Tambor) drainages. The lahar in San Isidro was 15-17 m wide and 1.5 m deep, and carried shrubs, tree trunks, and blocks up to 2 m in diameter. On 16 June lahars again descended the San Isidro drainage. During 15-18 June explosions at Caliente cone generated ash plumes that rose 400-800 m and drifted SW and E. Avalanches of material descended the E and SE flanks of the cone, and during 17-18 June reached the base of the cone. Minor ashfall was reported in San Marcos (10 km SW), Loma Linda (6 km WSW), and Palajunoj (18 km SSW) during 17-18 June.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly at Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified in daily satellite images during 8-14 June. Explosions and hot avalanches of material were captured by video and satellite data during 11-12 June. Ash plumes from the events drifted 60 km WNW. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Villarrica | Chile : OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN and ONEMI reported that during 1-31 May gas plumes rose as high as 170 m above Villarrica’s crater rim. Incandescence from the crater was periodically visible. POVI reported that on 17 June lava spattering above the crater rim was recorded by a newly-installed infrared webcam.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 12 June – 18 June 2019

Colima | Mexico : Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia – Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions mainly from the NE side of the crater and small explosions continued to be recorded during 8-14 June. Weather conditions often prevented visual observations of the crater.

Pavlof | United States : On 12 June AVO reported that elevated levels of seismicity at Pavlof, recorded since mid-May, had declined to background levels. The Aviation colour Code was lowered to Green and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal. The report noted that vapor plumes were occasionally visible in webcam views and elevated surface temperatures in the summit crater were sometimes identified in satellite images; both are common occurrences at Pavlof.

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : The eruption at Piton de la Fournaise that began at 0635 on 11 June continued through 12 June from fissures on the SSE flank of Dolomieu Crater. The front of the lava flow had reached around 1,200-1,300 m elevation by 0620. OVPF stated that the eruption ended at 1200 on 13 June.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 17 June multiple discrete emissions with increasing ash content over a period of about an hour rose from Sangeang Api to altitudes of 1.2-2.1 (4,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and WNW, based on satellite images and weather models. A thermal anomaly was also visible. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 5 June – 11 June 2019

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 1212 on 10 June an explosion at Agung produced a gray ash plume that rose about 1 km and drifted SE and E. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 3-10 June very small eruptive events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were recorded, as well as periodic crater incandescence. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-11 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions on 3 June that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted E. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kerinci | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 0604 on 7 June a grayish ash emission from Kerinci rose 800 m above the summit and drifted E according to a ground observer. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and tourists were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : On 12 June ash plumes from Klyuchevskoy rose to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 10 km N, prompting KVERT to raise the Aviation colour Code to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale). Ash emissions continued later that day with plumes rising to 5 km a.s.l. and drifting 68 km WNW.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network recorded one eruptive event at 0850 on 10 June. The event as not followed by visible ash emissions, though observations were hindered by weather conditions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 7-8 June ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, based on satellite data and weather models.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 3-10 June the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 458,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone footage. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating one block-and-ash flow that traveled 1 km down the Gendol drainage on 9 June. White plumes rose as high as 75 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that a 10-minute-long eruption at Rincón de la Vieja began at 0343 on 11 June. Emissions were not visible due to weather conditions.

Sabancaya | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that during 3-9 June an average of 12 explosion per day were recorded at Sabancaya. Ash plumes rose 2.9 km above the crater rim. On 7 June explosions generated ash plumes that drifted 30 km S and SW. The public was warned to not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 1-7 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Stromboli | Aeolian Islands (Italy) : INGV reported that during 3 and 6-9 June activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing Strombolian explosions and degassing from multiple vents within the crater terrace. Explosions from two vents (N1 and N2) in Area N (north crater area, NCA) occurred at a rate of 1-4 per hour, ejecting material 80 m high and producing ash plumes. Explosions from two vents (S1 and S2) in Area C-S (South Central crater area) occurred at a rate of 3-8 per hour, ejecting material 80-150 m high. Gas plumes rose from vent C.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 5 June – 11 June 2019

Colima | Mexico : Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia – Universidad de Colima reported that small explosions and intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, originating mainly from the NE side of the crater, continued to be recorded during 1-7 June. Weather conditions often prevented visual observations of the crater.

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that explosions at the fissure segment at 2,850 m elevation on the SE base of Etna’s New Southeast Crater (NSEC) declined in frequency and intensity during 3-4 June; explosions ceased on 5 June. The lava flow from the fissure was active only near the vent on 5 June and by the next day had ceased and began cooling. Sporadic ash emissions rose from Northeast Crater (NEC) and quickly dissipated on 6 June. The report noted that the NE edge of the NSEC cone had dropped several meters, likely in conjunction with a period of ash emissions on 30 May. In addition, a hot zone high on the SE flank of the cone that was established prior to the recent eruption was extensively covered with coloured fumarolic deposits by 6 June.

Great Sitkin | Andreanof Islands (USA) : AVO reported that a small steam explosion at Great Sitkin was detected in seismic data at 1318 on 7 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory.

Piton de la Fournaise : OVPF reported that a seismic crisis at Piton de la Fournaise began at 0603 on 11 June and was accompanied by rapid deformation. Tremor began at 0635, indicating an eruption, though inclement weather conditions prevented visual confirmation; a gas plume was recorded in webcam images. Scientists observed the eruption during a field visit around 0930, describing at least five active fissures on the SSE flank of Dolomieu Crater. Weather conditions continued to hinder visual observations. Three fissures at relatively lower elevations produced 30-m-high lava fountains and lava flows. Two higher-elevation fissures were no longer active. By 1530 only the lowest-elevation fissure remained active.

Sinabung | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 1628 on 9 June an eruption at Sinabung produced a dense black-gray ash plume that rose around 7 km above the summit, drifted W and SW, and generated pyroclastic flows that traveled 3.5 km SE and 3 km S. Roaring was heard at the Sinabung observation post. Continuous emissions were visible rising 500 m above the summit for a period on 10 June. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km on the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 29 May – 4 June 2019

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 1142 on 31 May an explosion at Agung produced a dense gray ash plume that rose 2 km and drifted NE and E. Roaring was audible from the Agung Volcano Observatory in Rendang (about 8 km SW). The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 27 May-3 June very small eruptive events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were recorded as well as periodic crater incandescence. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that very small eruptive events at Asosan’s Nakadake Crater on 29 and 31 May generated plumes that rose 400 m above the crater rim and, according to the Tokyo VAAC, drifted S and N, respectively. Sulfur dioxide emissions continued to be high at 2,000 tons per day. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29 May-4 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 25-28 May that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was identified during 27-28 May. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 31 May multiple ash plumes from Ibu rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W based on satellite data. On 2 June ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that an ash plume from Karymsky was identified in satellite images drifting 45 km NE on 24 May and a thermal anomaly was visible during 28-29 May. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that ash plumes from Klyuchevskoy were last observed on 22 April and a weak thermal anomaly was last identified on 15 May. KVERT lowered the Aviation colour Code to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-colour scale) on 31 May.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network detected two eruptive events on 29 May and two events on 2 June. None of the events were followed by visible ash emissions, though observations were hindered by weather conditions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 24-30 May the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 458,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone footage. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE flank, generating one block-and-ash flow that traveled 1.1 km down the Gendol drainage. White plumes rose as high as 400 m above the summit. A news article stated that block-and-ash flows descended the Gendol drainage during 1-2 June, traveling as far as 1.2 km. In addition, incandescent dome material traveled 750 m on 2 June. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Poas | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that multiple phreatic eruptions at Poás recorded during 29 May-1 June produced plumes that rose as high as 500 m above the vent.

Santa Maria | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that during 29-30 May lahars descended Santa María’s San Isidro drainage (tributary of El Tambor), carrying blocks 1-3 m in diameter and tree trunks. The lahars were 20 m wide and 1.5 m deep; CONRED noted that the 29 May lahar was hot and had a sulfur odor. Explosions recorded during 30 May-4 June generated ash plumes that rose as high as 800 m above the crater and drifted E and SE. Avalanches of material descended the E and SE flanks.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 24-31 May. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was occasionally visible at night during 24-31 May. An eruption at 1629 on 30 May generated a plume that rose 1.1 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 29 May – 4 June 2019

Colima | Mexico : Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia – Universidad de Colima reported that during 25-31 May small explosions and intermittent steam-and-gas emissions mainly from the NE side of the crater continued to be recorded. During overflights conducted during 23-24 May scientists observed that the new feature (a crack or cavity) reported the previous week had become a hole due to the combination of excavation due to explosions and probable subsidence. The maximum temperature recorded with a portable thermal camera was 252 degrees Celsius, an increase of 80 degrees since recorded on 1 May.

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that at 0220 on 30 May a fissure opened at the N base of Etna’s NSEC at about 3,150 m elevation. The fissure produced Strombolian explosions and a lava flow that advanced towards the W wall of the Valle del Bove; by 0915 it had reached 2,050 m elevation near Monte Simone. The flow was 2 km in length. Two fissures opened a few hours later at the SE base of NSEC at an elevation of about 3,050 m, each producing lava flows that converged and traveled along the W wall of the Valle del Bove towards Serra Giannicola Grande, partially covering the 2018 lava flows. The flow reached 2,260 m elevation by 0915. The fissure activity was accompanied by ash emissions which were intense starting at 1150 but then decreased and almost stopped late in the evening. The lava flow reached the bottom of the valley in the early hours of 31 May and had a length of about 3 km. INGV volcanologists confirmed that lava continued to effuse from both fissures during a visual inspection in the morning of 1 June and that vigorous spatter was occurring at a fissure on the SE base of NSEC. By 1930 the lava flow from the N base was no longer being fed and was cooling. During a visual inspection of the eruption site on 2 June volcanologists confirmed explosive activity at a fissure segment at 2,850 m and continuing lava effusion. The lava traveled along the W wall of the Valle del Bove, overlapping flows from previous days.

Great Sitkin | Andreanof Islands (USA) : A small steam explosion at Great Sitkin was detected in seismic data at 2140 on 1 June, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation colour Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. Low-level seismic activity was elevated just before and after the event.

Kurikomayama | Honshu (Japan) : JMA raised the Alert Level for Kurikomayama to 1 (the lowest level on a 5-level scale) on 30 May due to an undescribed potential for increased activity at the crater.

Midagahara | Honshu (Japan) : JMA raised the Alert Level for Midagahara to 1 (the lowest level on a 5-level scale) on 30 May due to an undescribed potential for increased activity at the crater.

Sinabung | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that white plumes from Sinabung rose as high as 500 m above the summit during 31 May-4 June. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km on the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 22 May – 28 May 2019

Agung | Bali (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 1923 on 24 May an explosion at Agung ejected incandescent material radially onto the flanks as far as 3 km from the crater rim, setting fire to some vegetation. A dense gray-white ash plume rose 2 km and, based on satellite data, drifted SW, causing thick ashfall in several villages to the S. Roaring was audible from the Agung Volcano Observatory in Rendang (about 8 km SW). According to a news article several flights to and from Australia were cancelled or diverted, though the International Gusti Ngurah Rai (IGNR) airport (60 km SW) in Denpasar was not closed. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 22-23 May two explosions at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) produced plumes that rose 1.6 km above the crater rim and ejected material as far as 900 m. Crater incandescence was periodically visible. Very small eruptive events were recorded during 24-27 May. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22-28 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : A thermal anomaly over Ebeko was identified in satellite images during 16-17 May. Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 16-20 May that sent ash plumes up to 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that gas emissions of variable intensity were observed rising from Etna’s summit craters during 20-26 May; weather conditions often prevented views. Weak and diffuse ash emissions occasionally rose from the New Southeast Crater (NSEC). An ash plume rose from Bocca Nuova Crater on 23 May.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-24 May ash plumes from Ibu rose to altitudes of 2.4-2.7 km (8,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE based on satellite data. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images during 17-21 May. An ash plume drifted 9 km SW on 21 May. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images on 17, 19, and 21 May. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network detected 26 eruptive events during 20-26 May. None of the events were followed by visible ash emissions, though observations were hindered by fog. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that on 11 May the lava dome at Merapi had an estimated volume of 458,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone footage, and remained unchanged at least through 26 May. The dome morphology remained relatively unchanged, as most of the extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank Gendol River drainage. One block-and-ash flow traveled 1.1 km down the Gendol drainage. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 17-24 May. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Soputan | Sulawesi (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 22-28 May white plumes rose as high as 100 m above Soputan’s summit. On 27 May white-to-gray plumes rose 150 m high. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 4 km, or 6.5 km on the WSW flank.