Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 15 March-21 March 2017

Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that lava continued to advance down Bezymianny’s NW flank during 10-17 March, and gas-and-steam plumes rose from the crater. A thermal anomaly was visible each day in satellite images. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange.

Chirinkotan | Kuril Islands (Russia) : Based on satellite images, SVERT reported that on 21 March an ash plume from Chirinkotan rose to an altitude of 6 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 15 km E. The Aviation Colour Code was raised to Yellow (the second lowest on a four-colour scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that during the morning of 15 March lava began to flow down the S flank of Etna’s Southeast Crater (SEC) – New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone complex. Activity rapidly intensified at 0800, and by 1000 near-constant Strombolian explosions were generating ash plumes. The lava flow reached the base of the cone and traveled S. By late afternoon the lava was advancing on top of lava flows from the previous eruption. The intensity of the Strombolian activity reached a peak around 1840-1845, and by the evening both the eruptive activity and seismicity gradually diminished. Just before midnight a new lava flow began to effuse from a vent on the S flank of the cone. On 16 March at 1243 a phreato-magmatic explosion occurred at the front of a lava flow where it contacted an area covered with snow. An INGV-Osservatorio Etneo volcanologist was injured in the explosion, suffering minor bruises. A news article noted that about 10 people were injured during the event.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 21 March weak ash emissions from Manam rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and E.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : Based on satellite and webcam views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 15-17 March gas-and-ash plumes from Nevados de Chillán rose to altitudes of 4-5.5 km (13,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and sometimes drifted NE and SW.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 8 March-14 March 2017

Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 14 March a minor ash emission from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW.

Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that an explosive eruption at Bezymianny began at about 1330 on 9 March. Based on webcam observations, at 1454 an ash plume rose to altitudes of 6-7 km (20,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 20 km NE. The Aviation Colour Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale). About 30 minutes later, at 1523, an ash plume rose to altitudes of 7-8 km (23,000-26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 60 km NW. KVERT raised the Aviation colour Code to Red. Satellite data showed a 14-km-wide ash plume drifting 112 km NW at an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. Later that day a 274-km-long ash plume identified in satellite images drifted NW at altitudes of 4-4.5 km (13,100-14,800 ft) a.s.l.; the majority of the leading part of the plume contained a significant amount of ash. A lava flow traveled down the NW part of the lava dome. The Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Orange. Ash plumes drifted as far as 500 km NW.

Bogoslof | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that an explosive event at Bogoslof began at about 2236 on 7 March, indicated in seismic, lightning, and infrasound data, and lasted about three hours. Though ash was not immediately visible in satellite data, AVO raised the Aviation Colour Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Later, satellite images showed a large ash cloud rising to an altitude of 10.7 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting E. This event was the first detected eruptive activity since 19 February, and more than 1,000 lightning strokes related to the volcanic eruption cloud were detected during this event, by far the highest number observed to date. In addition the seismic levels were among the highest detected since the beginning of the eruption. Satellite images from 8 March showed that the W part of the island had grown significantly. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch on 9 March.

Two earthquakes swarms were detected during 9-11 March; the first began at 1750 on 9 March and ended at 1400 on 10 March, and the second was detected from 1900 on 10 March to 0500 on 11 March. Mildly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 10-11 March. A third swarm began at 0500 on 12 March. A short-duration event, from 1131 to 1143 on 13 March, produced a small ash cloud that rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSW. AVO noted that after the event, the level of seismic activity declined and the repeating earthquakes, detected for much of the previous several days, stopped. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were observed in two satellite images from 13 March. A photograph taken by a pilot showed a low-level, billowy steam plume rising from the general area of the intra-island lake.

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : On 8 March AVO reported that satellite data collected over the previous few weeks did not indicate any growth of Cleveland’s lava dome that was emplaced sometime in late January; weakly elevated surface temperatures detected in satellite data were consistent with cooling lava and not indicative of new activity. The Aviation colour Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory.

Colima | Mexico : Based on Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia – Universidad de Colima observations, the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil de Colima reported that during 3-9 March there were six low-intensity explosions at Colima. At 1823 on 7 March an ash plume rose about 2 km above the crater and drifted SW. The report noted that the public should not enter the 8-km-radius exclusion zone.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8 and 10-14 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 3-10 March there were 15 explosions at Ebeko observed by residents of Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island) about 7 km E. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that six explosions and weak shockwaves were detected at Fuego on 9 March. Ash plumes rose 900 m and drifted S and SW. Ashfall was reported in Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), and Santa Cecilia. Avalanches of material traveled towards the Santa Teresa (W), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages. The number and intensity of explosions increased on 10 March. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.7 km and drifted more than 10 km W and SW. Ash fell in areas downwind including Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km N). During 11-14 March explosions produced ash plumes that rose 0.5-1 km and drifted 8-12 km NW, W, and SW. Ash fell in multiple areas including Panimaché I and II, Morelia, and Santa Sofía. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 200 m above the crater rim.

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : During 8-14 March HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu’u ‘O’o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Surface lava flows were active on the coastal plain, and on and above the pali.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that the number of phreatomagmatic explosions at Nevados de Chillán increased on 7 March, after a month and a half of no explosive activity. Explosions from the craters on the E side of Volcán Nuevo and the Volcán Arrau dome complex produced plumes that rose 300 m on 7 March, and then subsequently seismicity and surficial activity gradually increased. On 11 March there were eight explosions detected. Plumes rose as high as 500 m and incandescent material was ejected 500 m away from the craters. A series of eight explosions beginning at 0617 on 16 March generated ash plumes that rose 1.5 km and again ejected incandescent material. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the middle level on a three-colour scale, and the public was reminded not to approach the craters within a 3-km radius.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : Each day during 8-14 March CENAPRED reported 87-200 steam and gas emissions from Popocatépetl, and crater incandescence on most nights. Weather clouds often prevented visual observations. Explosions were detected during 8-11 March: at 0809 on 8 March, at 1847 on 9 March, at 0539 on 10 March, and at 0435 on 11 March. Two additional explosions on 11 March, at 1347 and 1842, generated ash plumes that rose less than 2 km above the crater rim and drifted ENE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Sabancaya | Peru : Based on webcam images, satellite views, and seismic data the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 8-14 March sporadic gas-and-ash puffs rose from Sabancaya. Weather clouds often hindered observations of the volcano. On 9 March ash plumes rose to an altitude of 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and SW. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. on 12 March.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 3-10 March lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome, and ash plumes that drifted NW 5 and 8-9 March. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung | Indonesia : Based on PVMBG observations, satellite data, webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-14 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-5.2 km (10,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, SW, and S.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 8 March-14 March 2017

Chirinkotan | Kuril Islands (Russia) : SVERT noted that no further activity at Chirinkotan was visible after the ash emission on 1 March. The Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Green (on a four-colour scale) on 5 March.

Ebulobo | Flores Island (Indonesia) : Based on PVMBG observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 March an ash plume from Ebulobo rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. (800 m above the summit) and drifted W.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite data during 2-3, 5, and 8-9 March. Explosions on 8 March produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 20 km NW. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 1 March-7 March 2017

Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-5 and 7 March ash plumes from Bagana rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km W and SW.

Bogoslof | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof had been detected in seismic, infrasound, or sometimes cloudy satellite data during 1-7 March. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.

Bulusan | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that a weak phreatic eruption at Bulusan occurred at 1357 on 2 March. The event was recorded by the seismic network as an explosion-type earthquake followed by short-duration tremor that lasted approximately 26 minutes. Visual observations were obscured by weather clouds, although a small steam plume rising from the SE vent was recorded by a webcam. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO reported that during 1-4 and 6-7 March slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images of Cleveland, along with minor steaming from the summit visible in clear webcam images during 1-3 March. Cloud cover prevented views on 5 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-3 and 5-6 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, S, SE, and E.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that, according to observers in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island) about 7 km E, explosions at Ebeko on 24, 26, and 27 February and 2 March produced ash plumes that rose as high as an altitude of 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : During 1-7 March HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu’u ‘O’o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Surface lava flows were active on the coastal plain, along the E side of 61G, about 500 m upslope of the FEMA emergency road. Other surface flows above the pali appeared during 1-2 March.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 March an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N.

Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia : Based on satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 4 March an ash plume from Nevado del Ruiz rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 31 km NW.

Sabancaya | Peru : Based on webcam images, satellite views, and seismic data the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 1-4 and 6-7 March sporadic gas-and-ash puffs rose from Sabancaya. Weather clouds often hindered observations of the volcano. On 3 March ash plumes rose to altitudes of 9.1-10.4 km (30,000-34,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, and S. Intermittent increases in seismicity were also detected that day.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 24 February-3 March lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Explosions on 24 February generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome, and ash plumes that drifted 95 km NE during 25-26 February. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange.

Sinabung | Indonesia : Based on PVMBG observations, satellite data, webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-2, 5, and 7 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4.3 km (10,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NW, W, and SW.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 3-4 March explosions at Suwanosejima generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 1 March-7 March 2017

Chirinkotan | Kuril Islands (Russia) : Based on satellite images, SVERT reported that on 1 March an ash plume from Chirinkotan rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 165 km E. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Yellow (on a four-colour scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that Strombolian activity at Etna’s New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone had gradually intensified beginning at 1700 on 27 February. Lava overflowed the vent, quickly traveled down the S flank, and then slowed after reaching the gently sloping terrain. The flow spread SSW, towards the old cone of Monte Frumento Supino. During 27-28 February frequent Strombolian explosions ejected incandescent lava fragments up to 200 m above the vent. During a field survey on 28 February INGV-Osservatorio Etneo staff observed sporadic emissions of vapor and brownish ash from several vents within the NSEC. A new pyroclastic cone around the vent had grown higher than the highest points on the SEC (Southeast Crater) or NSEC. The lava flow slowly advanced on top of the snow, and by 1 March was about 1.5 km from the vent. By the late evening, activity declined, and the volcanic tremor amplitude rapidly diminished.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) :KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite data during 25 February and 1-2 March. At 1340 on 2 March a gas, steam, and ash plume recorded by the webcam rose to altitudes of 8-9 km (26,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km NE and NW. The Aviation Colour Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 2-3 and 6-7 March weak Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney cone ejected material 5-10 m above the crater rim. Crater incandescence was visible at night and at dawn during 4-5 March.

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that the 28-day eruption at Piton de la Fournaise, beginning on 31 January and ending on 27 February, produced less than 10 million cubic meters of lava.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 22 February-28 February 2017

Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 February a diffuse ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE.

Bogoslof | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof had been detected in seismic, infrasound, or mostly cloudy satellite data during 22-28 February. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO reported that during 22-28 February no significant activity at Cleveland was observed in satellite and webcam views, nor in seismic or infrasound data. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in a satellite image during 26-28 February, and minor steaming was visible in webcam images during 27-28 February. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Colima | Mexico : On 24 February the Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia – Universidad de Colima reported low-intensity explosions at Colima during the previous week. The internal crater remained about 250 m in diameter and 50-60 m deep; previous lava domes had been destroyed in late September and mid-November 2016. Scientists who visited the terminus of a 4.5-km-long pyroclastic flow that had been emplaced on 8 January observed that the flow was blocky with very little ash, and that the local vegetation had not been burnt, suggesting that the flow was low-temperature. The Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil de Colima noted that the public should not enter the 8-km-radius exclusion zone, and also stay away from ravines.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22 and 24-28 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, and NW.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that, according to observers in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island) about 7 km E, explosions on 27 February at Ebeko produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 6 km N. The Aviation Colour Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 21-22 February there were 28 explosions detected at Fuego, and ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim and drifted E and NE. There were 32 explosions recorded during 23-24 February; ash plumes rose 650 m and drifted S and SW. Lava fountains rose 200 m high, and generated a 200-m-long lava flow that descended the Santa Teresa (W) drainage. A second lava flow descended the Las Lajas (SE) drainage. Seismicity increased on 24 February. On 25 February explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater and drifted more than 25 km NW, N, NE, and E. Ash fell in Alotenango (8 km ENE), San Vicente Pacaya, El Rodeo, El Zapote, La Reunión, and Alotenango. Lava fountains rose 300 m, and material was ejected as far away as 500 m. The lava flows continued to advance, extending 1.2 km in the Santa Teresa drainage, 1.3 km in the Las Lajas drainage, and 1.6 km in the Ceniza (SSW) drainage. Weak-to-moderate explosions during 26-27 February produced ash plumes that rose at most 750 m and drifted 8 km W and SW.

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : During 22-28 February HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu’u ‘O’o Crater and from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone. A pit on the W side of the crater contains a small lava pond. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Surface lava flows were active on the coastal plain, along the E side of 61G, less than 1 km upslope of the FEMA emergency road. Other surface flows streamed down the pali farther inland.

Langila | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 24 February an ash plume from Langila rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N.

Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia : Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 21-27 February seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz continued to indicate unrest. Seismicity was highest during 23-26 February with earthquakes located at depths of 1.1-4 km, in areas SW of the volcano; the largest event was a local M 3.2. Signals indicating fracturing rock increased in both size and number as compared to the previous week. Significant amounts of water vapour and gas continued to be emitted. Gas, steam, and ash plumes rose 2 km above the crater rim on 25 February and drifted NW and SW. Thermal anomalies were identified on 21, 23, and 26 February. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-colour scale).

Sabancaya | Peru : Based on webcam views and seismic data the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 22-26 and 28 February sporadic gas-and-ash puffs rose from Sabancaya, and during 24-28 February they rose to altitudes of 7-11.9 km (23,000-39,000 ft) a.s.l. Weather clouds often hindered observations of the volcano.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 17-24 February lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome, and ash plumes that drifted 100 km NE on 18 February. Explosions on 20 February generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange.

Sinabung | Indonesia : Based on PVMBG observations, satellite and webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22 and 24-26 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-5.2 km (11,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WNW, W, and SW.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions at Suwanosejima during 27-28 February. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE on 28 February.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 22 February-28 February 2017

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that Strombolian activity at Etna’s New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone that began on 23 January gradually began to intensify at 1700 on 27 February. A lava flow quickly reached the base of the cone and traveled SW towards Monte Frumento Supino. Ash plumes drifted E and caused ashfall in Zafferana and Linguaglossa.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 21-28 February weak Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney cone ejected material as high as 20 m above the crater rim. Lava flows traveled 150 m NW towards Cerro Chino cone, and 75 m W.

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that during 25-26 February observers noted ejections of material from the active vent at Piton de la Fournaise. Lava was mainly transported through a lava tube, and a few branches coming from the end of the tube remained active. Late at night on 26 February tremor began to decline, and ceased at 1010 the next morning. Mid-day on 27 February observers confirmed that no material was being ejected from the vent, and that only white plumes were rising; gas emissions ceased at 1930.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 15 February-21 February 2017 – cont.

Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia : Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 14-20 February seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz continued to indicate unrest. Earthquakes were located at depths of 1.1-1.7 km, in areas N, NE, SE, and SW of the volcano, but mainly beneath Arenas Crater. The largest event was a local M 1.4. Signals indicating fracturing rock increased in both size and number as compared to the previous week. Significant amounts of water vapour and gas continued to be emitted. Gas, steam, and ash plumes rose 1.2 km above the crater rim on 18 February and drifted NE, SE, and SW. Thermal anomalies were identified by the MIROVA system during 14, 16-17, and 19-20 February. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-colour scale).

Reventador | Ecuador : During 15-21 February IG reported a high level of seismic activity including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador. Although cloud cover often prevented visual observations, activity was noted almost daily. Minor ashfall was reported on 15 February, and the next morning crater incandescence was visible. During 17-19 and 21 February steam, gas, and ash plumes rose 1-2 km above the crater rim and mainly drifted S and W. “Gunshot” sounds were heard on 18 February.

Sabancaya | Peru : Based on webcam views, satellite images, and seismic data the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 14-21 February sporadic gas-and-ash puffs rose from Sabancaya, and during 16-17 and 20 February rose to altitudes of 7.3-8.2 km (24,000-27,000 ft) a.s.l. Weather clouds often hindered observations of the volcano.

Santa Maria | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 16-17, 19, and 20-21 February a few explosions at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 700 m above the complex and drifted SW. Minor ashfall was reported in La Florida (5 km S) on 19 February and in Monte Claro (S) during 20-21 February.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 10-17 February lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange.

Sinabung | Indonesia : Based on PVMBG observations, satellite and webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-18 and 20-21 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4.3 km (10,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, and S.

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 15-16 February high-amplitude tremor at Turrialba remained constant, and sporadic gas emissions with minor amounts of ash drifted S and E. Occasional ballistics were ejected from the crater. During 16-17 February sporadic gas emissions with low ash content rose no higher than 300 m and drifted NW and SW. Tremor amplitude had decreased to moderate levels. Similar emissions were observed during 20-21 February, although they drifted NW and NE.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 15 February-21 February 2017

Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16 and 18-20 February ash plumes from Bagana rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.4 km (8,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSE, S, and SW. Ash plumes drifted as far as 85 km during 19-20 February.

Bogoslof | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that during 15-16 February cloud cover prevented satellite views of Bogoslof; no other data indicated eruptive activity. At 0955 on 17 February seismic data indicated the beginning of an explosive event, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Colour Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Individual pulses of seismicity was recorded until 1140, and then afterwards seismicity was low. Satellite images and pilot observations indicated that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. The event was also verified by infrasound and lightning data. Another short-lived explosive event began at 1546, detected in infrasound and seismic data. A volcanic cloud identified in satellite images rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l.

An explosion at 0450 on 18 February was detected in seismic, infrasound, and lightning data. The seismic data suggested that ash emissions lasted several minutes, and then seismicity decreased. A preliminary evaluation of satellite data indicated that a cloud rose at least as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l.; the cloud drifted SW. On 19 February the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. Later that day seismic and infrasound data recorded a series of short-lived explosive pulses during 1708-1745. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. A plume identified in satellite images rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 160 km SE over Unalaska Island. AVO geologists on the island described the cloud has having a white upper portion and a slightly darker lower portion. Storms in the region impacted data communications at AVO’s facility in Dutch Harbour on 20 February, limiting AVO’s ability to forecast and detect eruptions at Bogoslof.

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO reported that although weather clouds mostly prevented satellite and webcam views of Cleveland during 15-21 February, slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite imagery during 18-19 February. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Colima | Mexico : Based on Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia – Universidad de Colima observations, the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil de Colima reported that during 10-16 February there were 10 low-intensity explosions at Colima. Gas emissions were at low-to-moderate levels. The report noted that the public should not enter the 8-km-radius exclusion zone.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14 and 16-21 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions.

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : During 15-21 February HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu’u ‘O’o Crater and from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone. All surface flows were active within 2.4 km of Pu’u ‘O’o. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna.

Langila | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-18 February ash plumes from Langila rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 15 February-21 February 2017

Barren Island | Andaman Islands (India) : The National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), part of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), reported that a new eruption at Barren Island began on 23 January. Scientists aboard a research vessel were collecting sea floor samples when they observed a sudden ash emission. The team moved closer, about 1.6 km from the volcano, and noted small eruptive episodes lasting 5-10 minutes. Ash emissions were visible in the daytime, and lava fountains feeding lava flows on the flanks were visible at night. The team revisited the volcano on 26 January and observed similar activity during the four hours they stayed. They sampled sediments and water in the vicinity of the eruption and recovered volcanic ejecta.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that seismicity at Anak Krakatau increased on 17 February, with earthquakes indicating emissions slowing transforming into continuous tremor. Harmonic tremor began to be recorded at 1810 on 19 February. Almost an hour later, at 1904, Strombolian explosions ejected incandescent material 200 m high.

Lanin | Central Chile-Argentina border : Servicio Nacional de Geología and Minería (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) reported that beginning at 1524 on 15 February a seismic swarm at Lanin, consisting of 59 volcanic-tectonic, long-period, and spasmodic tremor events, lasted for 45 minutes. The largest volcano-tectonic event was a M 1.8. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow (second highest level on a four-colour scale); ONEMI declared an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the community of Curarrehue (32 km N).

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 14-21 February small Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney cone periodically generated small lava flows (200 m long on 21 February) that were active for hours at a time. CONRED noted that at night on 15 February residents in Los Positos in Villa Canales (13 km NE), and in Mesillas Altas and Bajas in Amatitlán (12 km N) reported vibrations and rumbling.

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that volcanic tremor at Piton de la Fournaise fluctuated during 14-21 February. Lava was mainly transported through a lava tube, and a few branches at end of tube were active.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 8 February-14 February 2017 – cont.

Sabancaya | Peru : Based on webcam views, satellite images, and seismic data the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 8-10 and 12-14 February sporadic gas-and-ash puffs rose from Sabancaya as high as an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 3-10 February lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed an ash plume that drifted 112 km NW on 4 February and a thermal anomaly over the dome during 5 and 7-9 February. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange.

Sinabung | Indonesia : Based on PVMBG observations, satellite and webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-13 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.4-6.7 km (11,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, and SE.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 9 February an explosion generated an ash plume from Suwanosejima that rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 1610 on 8 February an ash plume rose 300 m above Turrialba’s active vent and drifted N. An event at 1531 on 10 February also produced an ash plume but inclement weather prevented estimates of the plume height. During 11-12 February variable amplitude tremor was detected, and at night hot blocks ejected from the vent landed in Cráter Central. Several events on 13 February (at 0255, 0305, 0415, and 1459) produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km and drifted N, NW, and W. Several small ejections of incandescent material fell around the active crater during the early morning. On 14 February continuous emissions of gas and steam with low ash content were visible. A strong sulphur odor was reported in San Pablo de Oreamuno (25 km SW).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 8 February-14 February 2017

Bogoslof | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that during 8-12 and 14 February cloud cover prevented satellite views of Bogoslof; no other data indicated eruptive activity. At 0724 on 13 February seismicity significantly increased, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Colour Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Satellite images acquired through 0930 showed no ash emissions above the 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. cloud deck, and no lightning was detected. AVO concluded that, despite the intensity of seismic activity, a significant ash emission was not produced during this event; the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch.

Colima | Mexico : The Universidad de Colima reported that a large explosion at Colima was recorded at 1732 on 3 February, generating an ash plume that rose 6 km above the crater rim and drifted SSW. A small pyroclastic flow traveled down the E flank. The report stated that the internal crater is about 250 m in diameter and 50-60 m deep; previous lava domes had been destroyed in late September and mid-November 2016. On 9 February the sulphur dioxide gas flux was low (19 tons/day). Based on webcam and satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 11 February an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. On 14 February an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-14 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, and E

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : On 10 February KVERT reported that activity at Ebeko had declined, though gas-and-steam emissions continued. The Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-colour scale).

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : During 8-14 February HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu’u ‘O’o Crater and from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone. All surface flows were active within 2.4 km of Pu’u ‘O’o. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. A portion of the sea cliff just W of the ocean entry collapsed on 11 February.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 8 February-14 February 2017

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO reported that weakly elevated surface temperatures in Cleveland’s summit crater were identified in satellite images during 7-9 February. Minor steaming was noted on 8 February. AVO noted that these observations were consistent with the presence of a lava dome that began extruding in the summit crater in late January. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Pacaya | Guatemala : On 9 February INSIVUMEH reported that moderate explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney cone had been detected during the previous few days. Incandescent material was ejected 30-50 m high and filled a large part of the crater; lava spilled over the crater rim and traveled 300 m down the NW flank. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 30 m during 11-12 February. Small Strombolian explosions were visible on 13 February. The lava flow continued to advance the next day.

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that during 8-14 February volcanic tremor at Piton de la Fournaise was high, with levels reaching those observed at the onset of the eruption on 31 January. The eruptive vent was perched on top of a cone that was 30-35 m high and 190 m wide (at the base). The lava level inside of the cone was low, or about half of cone’s height, and incandescent material was ejected from the vent. Lava was mainly transported through a lava tube, though a few branches at end of tube were active.

Takawangha | Andreanof Islands (USA) : On 10 February AVO stated that the seismic swarm that began at Takawangha on 23 January had significantly declined the previous week and that seismicity was nearly at background levels. The Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Green and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 1 February-7 February 2017 – cont.

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : During 1-7 February HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu’u ‘O’o Crater and from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. All surface flows were active within 2.4 km of Pu’u ‘O’o.

HVO geologists noted an extensive crack running parallel to the sea cliff about 5-10 m behind the stream of lava entering the ocean at Kamokuna. The crack was 30 cm wide on 28 January and 70 cm wide four days later, on 1 February. In addition, the seaward block bounded by this crack was visibly moving up to 1 cm, and ground shaking could be felt up to several hundred meters away. On 2 February the crack was wider and steaming, and the stream of lava that had been pouring into the ocean from an opening in a lava tube about 20 m above the water was no longer visible (though lava continued to enter the ocean). At about 1255 almost the entire section of the sea cliff that was seaward of the hot crack collapsed. The collapsed block generated a wave that propagated outward from the coast. After the collapse, no lava was visible entering the ocean though a steam plume and spatter from explosions indicated that the entry remained active.

Sabancaya | Peru : Based on webcam and satellite views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that sporadic gas-and-ash puffs rose from Sabancaya during 2-6 February. Weather clouds sometimes prevented visual observations.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 27 January-3 February lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Sinabung | Indonesia : Based on PVMBG observations, satellite and webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 2-7 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes as high as 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SE, and SW.

BNPB reported that each day during 2-7 February there were 8-12 ash-producing events with plumes rising as high as 2 km above the crater and drifting E. Pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 2 km S, SE, and E. BNPB noted that more areas had been designated disaster prone, therefore the number of people needed to be relocated also increased. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with an exclusion zone of 7 km from the volcano on the SSE sector, and 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector.

Turrialba | Costa Rica : On 1 February OVSICORI-UNA reported that since 27 January the seismic network at Turrialba recorded variable-amplitude, discontinuous tremor indicative of moving pressurized volcanic fluid. Passive emissions of ash were observed during 1-2 February, rising as high as 500 m above the crater. Ashfall was reported in Desamparados, Calle Blancos, and Tres Ríos, and a sulphur odour was noted in San Pablo Heredia. An eruption at 0900 on 4 February generated an ash plume that rose 300 m and drifted W. Almost continuous ash emissions rose at most 500 above the crater during 4-5 February and drifted WSW. Variable-amplitude tremor continued to be recorded.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 1 February-7 February 2017

Bogoslof | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that no further emissions were detected at Bogoslof after an explosion at 0520 on 31 January; the Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was lowered to Watch the next day. A burst of tremor lasting nine minutes was detected starting at 0457 on 3 February. A second burst, starting at 0533 and lasting 20 minutes, was also detected by infrasound instruments, indicating an explosion. No ash cloud was detected above the meteorological cloud deck in satellite data. An event that began at 1642 produced a small volcanic plume that drifted about 40 km N below an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. Seismic tremor significantly decreased later that evening. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were observed in two satellite images acquired on 5 February, possibly related to hot deposits from explosive activity the day before.

Colima | Mexico : The Washington VAAC reported that on 1 February an ash emission was recorded by the webcam rising from Colima. Weather clouds prevented satellite observations of the event. Based on webcam and satellite images, the Mexico City MWO, and model data, the VAAC noted that during 3-6 February ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5.2-7.6 km (17,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, SW, and S.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-2 and 5-7 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted at least 130 km SE and E.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that moderate gas-and-steam emissions possibly containing small amounts of ash continued at Ebeko during 27 January-3 February. Minor ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island) about 7 km E on 30 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : In a special report from 2 February, INSIVUMEH noted increased activity at Fuego characterized by explosions occurring every 5-15 minutes. Ash plumes rose as high as 750 m and drifted 15 km W, causing ashfall in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo and San Pedro Yepocapa. During 2-7 February explosions generated ash plumes that rose 0.4-1.1 km above the crater and drifted at most 12 km NW, W, SW, and S. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m high, and avalanches traveled down the Taniluyá (SW) and Ceniza (SSW) drainages. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Rochela, and Panimaché I and II (8 km SW). Shock waves from explosions rattled nearby structures.