Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 7 August – 13 August 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 5-13 August very small eruptive events were detected at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano), though none of them were explosive. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible in webcams at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that increased eruptive activity at Asosan that began on 28 July continued at least through 13 August. Ash plumes drifted N and NW, and crater incandescence was visible at night. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions were very high at 2,000-5,000 tons per day. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and statements from ground-based observers, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7-13 August ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported on 8 August at the Galela Airport, Maluku Utara, 17 km NW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions on 2 and 4 August that sent ash plumes up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on those same two days. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 7-12 August white-to-gray plumes rose 200-800 m above Ibu’s crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 5-11 August lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater and travel down drainages on the W and SW flanks, producing incandescent avalanches that descended those same drainages. White plumes rose from the summit craters rose 50-100 m above the peak. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images during 2 and 4-6 August. Ash plumes drifted 180 km SE and NW during 3-5 August. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was visible in satellite images during 5-6 August. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 5-11 August the lava-dome volume at Merapi had decreased compared to the week before and was an estimated 461,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating a total of two block-and-ash flows that traveled as far as 1.2 km down the Gendol drainage on 4 and 6 August. Diffuse white plumes rose as high as 50 m above the summit on some days. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 8-13 August multiple explosions at Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater generated gas-and-ash plumes and ejected incandescent material around the crater. These explosions were recorded at 0438 on 8 August, at 2223 on 10 August, at 1831 and 1952 on 12 August, and at 0427, 1058, and 1116 on 13 August. Eruption plumes rose as high as 765 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián; on 13 August they stated that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the ENE flank.

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that a seismic crisis at Piton de la Fournaise began at 0700 on 11 August and was accompanied by rapid deformation. The locations of the earthquakes and area of deformation indicated that magma rose from deep under the SE edge of Dolomieu Crater to beneath the E and SE flanks. Tremor began around 1620, indicating the likely start of this year’s fourth eruption, though inclement weather conditions prevented visual confirmation. The Alert Level was raised to 2-2. On 12 August OVPF confirmed that fissures had opened in the E part of l’Enclos Fouqué, SE of the upper Grandes Pentes. Scientists saw two fissures, about 1.4 km apart, at 1,700 and 1,500 m elevation during an overflight on 13 August. Only the lowest elevation fissure was active. Three distinct cones along the fissure fed lava flows that merged into one which traveled to 665 m elevation and caused small fires as it burned local vegetation.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 7-13 August there were 125-209 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained ash. As many as seven explosions were recorded daily, with the exceptions of 7 August (no explosion were detected) and 11 August (16 were documented). Two explosions on 13 August were characterized as major (at 0427 and 0453) and ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 7-13 August ash plumes from Sangeang Api were identified in satellite images rising to 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Semisopochnoi | United States : AVO reported that during 7-13 August seismicity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated and was characterized by periods of continuous tremor and discrete low-frequency earthquakes. No unusual activity was observed in satellite images, though views were often cloudy. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 2-9 August. A diffuse ash plume rose to 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 40 km NW on 5 August. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Stromboli | Aeolian Islands (Italy) : INGV reported that Stromboli’s crater terrace activity was analyzed during 5-11 August through webcam views, and field inspections during 7-8 August. At least nine vents in Area N (north crater area, NCA) were active on 7 August, three of which had well-formed spatter cones, with Strombolian activity ejecting material 150 m high. A large scoria cone in Area C-S (South Central crater area) jetted material 200 m high. Lava from Area C-S vents continued to travel down the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco, reaching 500-600 m elevation.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that volcanic earthquakes began to be detected at Suwanosejima on 4 August and volcanic tremors were occasionally recorded during 4-9 August. Four eruptive events occurred at Ontake Crater on 5 August and one on 6 August. Large blocks were ejected as far as 400 m and ash plumes rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Villarrica | Chile : POVI reported that a portion of the E edge of Villarrica’s summit crater rim collapsed between 9 and 12 August.

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Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 7 August – 13 August 2019

Asamayama | Honshu (Japan) : JMA reported that at 2208 on 7 August a small phreatic eruption at Asamayama produced an ash plume that rose higher than 1.8 km above the crater rim and drifted N. Blocks were ejected 200 m from the crater. The eruption lasted about 20 minutes and was the first since 19 June 2015. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-5). Ash fell in Tsumagoi Village and Naganohara Town, in the Gunma Prefecture. White plumes rose as high as 700 m above the crater rim during 8-13 August, and the amount of sulfur dioxide released was 90-200 tons per day.

Sarychev Peak | Matua Island (Russia) : SVERT reported that an ash plume from Sarychev Peak rose to 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 50 km SE on 11 August, based on Tokyo VAAC notices. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow.

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that during 7-13 August continuous, low-level tremor at Shishaldin was recorded by the seismic network and elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Slamet | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that seismicity at Slamet significantly increased beginning in June, with 51,511 signals indicating emissions and 22 tectonic earthquakes recorded through 8 August. White plumes with variable density rose as high as 300 m above the crater rim.Tremor began to be recorded at the end of July with gradually increasing amplitude. In addition, notable inflation was detected at the end of July and long-term temperatures of hot springs showed an upward trend. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay outside a radius of 2 km.

Tangkubanparahu | Western Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 5-11 August phreatic events at Tangkubanparahu’s Ratu Crater continued to produced sometimes dense, gray-to-white plumes that rose as high as 200 m above the vent and ash plumes rose as high as 100 m. The emissions were accompanied by roaring. Ashfall was localized around Ratu Crater. The seismic network recorded continuous tremor. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 1.5 km away from the active crater.

Ulawun | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) :RVO reported that during 7-8 August minor emissions of white vapor rose from Ulawun’s summit crater. Seismicity was dominated by low-level volcanic tremor and remained at low-to-moderate levels. RSAM values fluctuated between 400 and 550 units; peaks did not go above 700.

Veniaminof | United States : AVO reported that seismic unrest at Veniaminof continued during 7-13 August with low-frequency earthquakes being common. Satellite and webcam views showed nothing unusual. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 31 July – 6 August 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 30 July-5 August very small eruptive events were detected at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano), though none of them were explosive. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible in webcams at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that increased eruptive activity at Asosan that began on 28 July continued at least through 5 August. Volcanologists confirmed that high-temperature, gray-white plumes rose from the center of Nakadake Crater during fieldwork conducted on 31 July. Grayish white plumes rose 1.3 km and 1.5 km above the crater rim on 1 and 5 August, respectively. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Chiles-Cerro Negro | Colombia-Ecuador : Instituto Geofísico de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IGEPN) and the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Pasto del Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC OVSP) jointly reported that the most recent seismic swarm below Cerro Negro de Mayasquer and Chiles volcanoes began in September 2018 and continued at least through 1 August. The swarm has consisted of 147,000 earthquakes, recorded up to the time of the report publication, mostly with magnitudes less than 3.6. Notably, at least 91 very-long-period earthquakes and 89 long-period earthquakes have been detected, indicative of a magmatic body at depth. In addition, at 0738 on 25 July a M4 earthquake was located 4 km below the summit of Chiles and felt by residents. About 850 volcano-tectonic events were recorded during 25-28 July.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 31 July-6 August ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted mainly N and NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 25-26 and 29 July, and 1 August, that sent ash plumes up to 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted in multiple directions. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that on 25 July Etna’s New Southeast Crater (NSEC) periodically emitted gas and ash. At 0630 on 27 July the seismic network detected a sudden increase in tremor amplitude, and at 0915 a new fissure opened on the S flank of NSEC. Explosive activity at the crater intensified at 1020 and a dense, ash-rich plume rose to 4.5-5 km a.s.l. and drifted E. A thin layer of ash was deposited in Giarre, Riposto and Torre Archirafi. Lava emerged from the S part of the new fissure and traveled SW and S; by 1235 the longest part of the flow had reached 2,850 m elevation and by 1330 it had reached 2,600 m elevation. Beginning at 1321 a sequence of particularly strong explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 7.5 km a.s.l. Explosive activity decreased around 0440 on 28 July, and lava effused from the vent at a lower rate. Starting at 0846 the Northeast Crater (NEC) occasionally emitted small plumes of red-brown ash. Explosive and effusive activity at NSEC ceased that evening. Activity during 29 July-4 August consisted of a few episodes of ash emissions at Bocca Nuova Crater and NEC.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that on 26 July a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images along with an ash plume drifting 60 km SE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kerinci | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that at 1248 on 31 July a gray ash emission from Kerinci rose around 800 m above the summit and drifted E and NE according to a ground observer. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was visible in satellite images during 26, 29, and 31 July, and 1 August. An ash emission was visible in webcam images on 1 August. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network recorded 10 eruptive events during 29 July-4 August. The events were not followed by visible emissions, though observations were hindered by weather conditions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 29 July-4 August the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 475,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating a total of four block-and-ash flows that traveled as far as 1 km down the Gendol drainage on 31 July and 4 August. Diffuse white plumes rose as high as 50 m above the summit on some days. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : On 6 August ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that activity at Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater increased in the previous few days, characterized by an increase in the size and occurrence of explosions. Specifically, there were 129 explosive events recorded since 3 August. Dense gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim and ejected material onto the flanks. Crater incandescence was visible at night. A lahar traveled 1.5 km NNE. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.

Nyamuragira | DR Congo : The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that collapses of Nyamuragira’s inner crater walls observed in May 2019 continued during 1-31 July. Lava fountaining from a small cone was visible.

Nyiragongo | DR Congo : The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that during 1-31 July the level Nyiragongo’s lava lake had dropped, making it not visible in the daytime. Incandescence from the lake continued to be visible at night. Activity also declined at a small eruptive cone that formed in the crater in 2014.

Sabancaya | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that an average of 13 low-to-medium intensity explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 22-28 July. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.3 km above the crater rim and drifted NE, E, and SE. There were eight thermal anomalies identified in satellite data. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius. Single explosions on 1 and 5 August produced an ash plume that drifted more than 30 km E and W, respectively.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 31 July-3 August ash plumes from Sangeang Api were identified in satellite images rising to 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 26 July-2 August. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : JMA reported that at 2331 on 1 August an explosion at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater ejected blocks 400 m from the crater. Weather clouds prevented visual confirmation of an ash plume. Crater incandescence was sometimes visible at night. The number of volcanic earthquakes increased on 4 August and four explosions were recorded on 5 August. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Villarrica | Chile : ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 6 August the Alert Level for Villarrica was raised to Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-colour scale, reflecting the recent increase in minor Strombolian activity ejecting spatter onto the flanks near the rim during the past weeks.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 31 July – 6 August 2019

Awu | Sangihe Islands (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 August an ash plume from Awu was visible in satellite images rising to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting N.

Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that beginning at 1858 on 20 July incandescent avalanches of material from Karangetang’s Main Crater traveled as far as 1 km W down the Pangi and Kinali drainages. By 22 July incandescent material had traveled another 500 m down the same drainages, and 1 km down the Nanitu and Beha drainages. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 30-31 July intermittent discrete ash plumes rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, and continuous ash emissions rose to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. A thermal anomaly was visible. On 5 August ash plumes rose to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E; a thermal anomaly was again visible. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Semisopochnoi | United States : AVO reported that during 31 July-6 August seismicity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated and was characterized by periods of weak, continuous tremor and discrete low-frequency earthquakes. Satellite images were mostly cloudy, though a possible steam plume was visible during 5-6 August. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that satellite images of Shishaldin acquired on 28 July showed a small spatter cone with lava flows in the summit crater. During 31 July-6 August continuous weak tremor was recorded by the seismic network and elevated surface temperatures were sometimes visible in satellite images. A small steam plume was observed in a few satellite and web camera images. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Tangkubanparahu | Western Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that an eruption at Tangkubanparahu’s Ratu Crater, recorded at 2046 on 1 August, generated a dense black ash-and-sediment-laden plume that rose about 180 m from the bottom of the crater, and light-coloured ash plumes mixed with water vapor that rose 200 m and drifted N and NE. The event lasted 11 minutes and 23 seconds based on seismic data. Ash and sediment fell in areas around the crater. Four eruptive events were recorded during the morning of 2 August, though ash emissions were not visually observed. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). A period of continuous ash emissions was recorded during 2-4 August.

Ulawun | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : RVO reported that during 1-2 August white-to-grayish vapor plumes rose from Ulawun’s summit crater and drifted NW. Incandescence from the summit crater was visible at night and jetting noises were audible for a short interval. RSAM values fluctuated but peaked at high levels. During the night of 2-3 August crater incandescence strengthened and roaring noises became louder around 0400. An eruption began between 0430 and 0500 on 3 August; booming noises commenced around 0445. By 0600 dense light-gray ash emissions were drifting NW, causing ashfall in areas downwind including Ulamona Mission. Ash emissions continued through the day and grew from light to dark gray with time. The eruption intensified at 1900 and a lava fountain rose more than 100 m above the crater rim. A Plinian ash plume rose 19 km and drifted W and SW, causing ashfall in areas downwind such as Navo and Kabaya, and as far as Kimbe Town. The Darwin VAAC reported that the ash plume expanded radially and reached the stratosphere, rising to 19.2 km (63,000 ft) a.s.l. The plume then detached and drifted S and then SE. The Alert Level was raised to Stage 3 (the second highest level on a four-stage scale). The areas most affected by ash and scoria fall were between Navo (W) and Saltamana Estate (NW). Two classrooms at the Navo Primary School and a church in Navo collapsed from the weight of the ash and scoria; one of the classroom roofs had already partially collapsed during the 26 June eruption. Evacuees in tents as a result of the 26 June eruption reported damage. Rabaul town (E) also reported ashfall. Seismicity declined rapidly within two hours of the event, though continued to fluctuate at moderate levels. According to a news source flights in and out of Hoskins airport in Port Moresby were cancelled on 4 August due to tephra fall. The Alert Level was lowered to Stage 1. Small amounts of white and gray vapor were emitted from the summit crater during 4-6 August.

Veniaminof | United States : Low-level tremor at Veniaminof coincided with a pilot observation of a steam plume at 1230 on 1 August, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation colour Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. On 2 August AVO noted that tremor had subsided, though low-level seismicity persisted at least through 6 August. Elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite images. A small steam plume was also visible on 3 August.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 24 July – 30 July 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that on 22 July an explosion at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) generated an ash plume that rose to 1.5 km above the crater rim. At 1725 and 1754 on 28 July ash plumes rose 3.5-3.8 km above the crater rim and causing ashfall in areas N of the crater including Kirishima (20 km NE), Shimizu Town, and parts of the Kumamoto Prefecture. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that at 0757 on 26 July a small eruption at Asosan’s Nakadake Crater generated grayish-white ash plumes that rose 1.6 km above the crater rim and drifted NW. Webcam images showed incandescent material in the vent. Minor ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Minamioguni-cho (Kumamoto Prefecture, N) and Kuze-cho (Oita Prefecture, NE). Plumes continued to be emitted during 0900-1300, rising to 400 m. Activity increased at 0442 on 28 July and remained elevated at least through 1500 on 29 July. Grayish-white plumes rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim and drifted NE and N. Sulfur dioxide emissions were very high on 29 July, at 4,300 tons per day. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24-30 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted mainly W, N, NE, and E. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 20-26 July that sent ash plumes up to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted in multiple directions. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images on 18, 20, and 25 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images during 18-19 and 25 July. An ash plume drifted 134 km SE on 25 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was visible in satellite images during 18-19 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 22-28 July the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 475,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating two block-and-ash flows that traveled 1,000 m and 950 m down the Gendol drainage on 24 and 27 July, respectively. Diffuse white plumes rose as high as 50 m above the summit on some days. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia : Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 23-30 July small plumes of gas and ash rose from Nevado del Ruiz based on webcam images. A weak thermal anomaly was identified in satellite data. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-colour scale).

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 24-30 July multiple ash plumes from Sangeang Api were identified by pilots and in satellite images rising to 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and quickly dissipating N, NW, W, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 19-26 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Tengger Caldera | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 July ash plumes from Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW based on webcam images, satellite data, and weather models. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater.

Tengger Caldera | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 July ash plumes from Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW based on webcam images, satellite data, and weather models. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater.

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruptive event at Turrialba was detected at 1441 on 28 July, though inclement weather conditions prevented visual confirmation. Ashfall was reported in La Picada (N) and El Retiro farms.

Villarrica | Chile : POVI reported that during 24-25 July multiple Strombolian explosions in Villarrica’s summit crater were detected in seismic data and ejected incandescent material onto the flanks.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 24 July – 30 July 2019

Masaya | Nicaragua : INETER reported that at 1655 on 21 July a small explosion at Masaya’s Santiago Crater produced a gas-and-ash plume that drifted NW and W. A thin layer of ash was deposited near the volcano and in surrounding communities downwind, including San Ignacio, Panamá, and Arenal. During field visits during 21-22 July, INETER volcanologists confirmed that the emissions had originated from a vent on the crater floor.

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that a seismic crisis at Piton de la Fournaise began at 0513 on 29 July and was accompanied by rapid deformation. Tremor beneath the N flank began to be recorded around 1200, indicating the likely start of the eruption, though inclement weather conditions prevented visual confirmation. OVPF visited the site and conducted helicopter overflights around 1630 and observed three active fissures, with a total length of 450 m, that crossed the July 2018 flows on the NW flank (600 m from the Formica Léo). The fissures produced 20-30-m-high lava fountains and ‘a’a lava flows that traveled no more than 500 m. After a gradual decline, volcanic tremor ceased at 0430 on 30 July signaling the end of the eruption.

Semisopochnoi | United States : On 24 July AVO reported that satellite data from the previous week indicated that the 100-m-wide crater lake in the N cone of Semisopochnoi’s Cerberus three-cone cluster was gone, and a new shallow inner crater about 80 m in diameter had formed on the crater floor. The lake had persisted since January 2019. Seismicity during 25-30 July was characterized by periods of continuous tremor, low-frequency earthquakes, and small explosion signals. Small steam plumes were visible in periodic, cloud-free satellite images, along with minor sulfur dioxide emissions.

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : On 23 July field crews observed minor spattering and surface lava flows in Shishaldin’s summit crater during an overflight, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation colour Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. Elevated surface temperatures were observed in multiple satellite images during 24-30 July, though views were sometimes obscured by weather clouds. Nearly continuous weak seismic tremor was detected, and occasional infrasound signals consistent with small Strombolian explosions were recorded during 26-27 July.

Tangkubanparahu | Western Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that a phreatic eruption at Tangkubanparahu’s Ratu Crater began at 1548 on 26 July and was recorded in seismic data for about five minutes and 30 seconds. Dense blackish-gray, sediment-laden plumes rose around 200 m above the lake surface, and a lighter-coloured component containing fine ash rose 600 m and spread NE and S. Tephra fell in a concentrated area within 500 m of the vent, creating deposits 5-7 cm thick. Visitors to the Kawasan Wisata Gunung Tangkuban Parahu tourist area that borders a section of the E and SE crater rim immediately evacuated. BNPB reported that the local government closed the tourist area noting that ash fell within a 1-2 km radius, in Jayagiri Village, Lembang District, and areas of the West Bandung Regency. Activity decreased after the eruption; tremor amplitude decreased during 27-28 July, and diffuse white plumes rose from the vent.

PVMBG noted that during the previous month white plumes of variable density rose as high as 150 m above the crater floor. Small local inflation was recorded, and deformation data continued to indicate instability at least through 27 July. Hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide concentrations began to increase on 10 July and then significantly declined at 1200 on 13 July. Measurements on 21 July indicated that gas emissions continued to fluctuate but decreased overall. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

Ubinas | Peru : IGP reported that activity at Ubinas continued to be elevated after the 19 July explosions. A total of 1,522 earthquakes, all with magnitudes under 2.2, were recorded during 20-24 July. Explosions were detected at 0718 and 2325 on 22 July. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume rising to 9.4 km (31,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SE was identified in satellite data at 0040 on 22 July. Continuous steam-and-gas emissions with sporadic pulses of ash were visible in webcam views during the rest of the day. Ash emissions near the summit crater were periodically visible on 24 July though often partially hidden by weather clouds. Ash plumes were visible in satellite images rising to 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. Diffuse ash emissions near the crater were visible on 25 July, though a thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images. During 26-28 July there were 503 people evacuated from areas affected by ashfall.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 17 July – 23 July 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 19-22 July as many as four explosions at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) generated ash plumes that rose at least to 1.5 km above the crater rim and ejected material 1.1 km from the vent. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-22 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted mainly W, NW, and N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Ebeko was identified in satellite images during 13-16 and 18 July. Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E, observed explosions during 15-16 July that sent ash plumes up to 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted S and SE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that during 15-17 July sporadic explosions at Etna’s New Southeast Crater (NSEC) were accompanied by small ash puffs that quickly dissipated. Strombolian activity at NSEC increased during the morning of 18 July with explosions occurring at a rate of one every 1-2 minutes. In the following hours the rate of explosions increased, and by the evening Strombolian activity was almost continuous. The activity continued to intensify until 2300 when a sharp decrease occurred. At 0009 on 19 July lava flowed from a new vent that opened on the lower NE flank of NSEC, and traveled towards the Valle del Leone. Within a few hours explosive activity again increased at NSEC; ash emissions occasionally rose from the Northeast Crater (NEC) and Bocca Nuova Crater. Explosive activity decreased and had ceased by noon. A sudden increase in explosive activity was recorded that afternoon and by the evening three vents within NSEC were producing Strombolian activity and sporadic ash emissions. Ashfall was reported in areas on the S flank. Explosive activity at NSEC again declined in the late evening. NEC produced abundant ash emissions until the morning of 20 July. Just before 0800 on 20 July a new phase of explosive activity began at NSEC and lava effusion at the new vent on the NE flank increased. Later that morning explosive activity completely ceased; by evening the lava flow was only weakly fed.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that ash plumes from Karymsky drifted 60 km in multiple directions during 13-17 July. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 14 and 16-18 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was visible in satellite images on 15 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 15-21 July the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 475,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating three block-and-ash flows that traveled 1.2 km down the Gendol drainage on 21 July. White plumes rose as high as 50 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 17-23 July Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 25 m above the crater rim. As many as four lava flows traveled down the NW and N flanks; two of the flows were 300 m long. Minor avalanches of material from the lava flow fronts descended the flanks.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-18 and 20-22 July ash plumes from Sangeang Api were identified by pilots and in satellite images rising to 2.1-4.6 km (7,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting NW, W, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 13-18 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Tengger Caldera | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that rain triggered a lahar at 1700 on 19 July that originated on the SW flank of Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater.

Villarrica | Chile : POVI reported a high level of incandescence from Villarrica’s summit crater on 22 July and lava bombs on the flanks just below the crater rim. Strombolian explosions intensified on 23 July, with material continuing to be ejected onto the flanks.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 17 July – 23 July 2019

Manam | Papua New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 21 July an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and W, based on satellite data and weather models.

Semisopochnoi | United States : AVO reported that data from local seismic and infrasound sensors likely detected a small explosion at Semisopochnoi on 16 July. No ash was visible in cloudy satellite images although none was expected from an explosion of its size. A small plume drifted 18 km from the vent but had no indication of ash. A strong tremor signal was recorded at 2339 on 17 July and an infrasound signal was detected from an array located 260 km E on Adak Island. The event likely produced ash emissions, though none were visible above the cloud deck at 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Seismic activity continued to increase. On 18 July a short-lived, low-level eruption prompted AVO to raise the Aviation colour Code to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). A low-level plume was visible in occasional cloud-free satellite images. Seismic activity decreased abruptly that night and ground-coupled airwaves stopped being detected on adjacent islands, suggesting that the eruption had paused or ended. Seismic activity remained low at least through 21 July.

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that weak tremor continued to be recorded at Shishaldin during 17-23 July and elevated surface temperatures were observed in multiple satellite images. Cloudy conditions typically obscured webcam views of the volcano, but when conditions were clear a small steam plume at the summit was visible. The Aviation colour Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory.

Stromboli | Aeolian Islands (Italy) : INGV reported that multiple vents on Stromboli’s crater terrace were active during 15-21 July, though the exact number was unknown due to the unfavorable positions of the cameras. Vents in Area N (north crater area, NCA) produced low-to-medium-intensity explosions at a rate of 4-10 events per hour, ejecting lapilli and bombs less than 150 m high. The vents of Area C-S (South Central crater area) generated explosions of intensities variable between low and very high and at a rate of 6-17 events per hour. Tephra was ejected over 200 m high. Lava from Area C-S vents continued to travel down the S part of the Sciara del Fuoco shedding blocks that rolled all the way to the coastline.

Ubinas | Peru : IGP reported that during 17-19 July gas-and-ash emissions occasionally rose from Ubinas’s summit crater and drifted N, E, and SE. Beginning at 0227 on 19 July as many as three explosions (two were recorded at 0227 and 0235) generated ash plumes that rose to 5.8 km above the crater rim. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes rose as high as 6.5 km above the crater rim (or to 40,000 ft. a.s.l.) based on satellite images. The Alert Level was raised to Orange (on a 4-level scale). Ash plumes drifted as far as 250 km E and SE, reaching Bolivia. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including the towns of Ubinas (6.5 km SSE), Escacha, Anascapa (11 km SE), Tonohaya (7 km SSE), Sacohaya, San Miguel (10 km SE), Huarina, and Matalaque, causing some families to evacuate. The VAAC reported that during 20-23 July ash plumes rose to 7.3-9.5 km (24,000-31,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, ESE, and SE.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 10 July – 16 July 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 8-16 July very small eruptive events were detected at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano), though none of them were explosive. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that sulfur dioxide emissions at Asosan’s Nakadake Crater reached a high value of 2,300 tons per day on 12 July. Very small events ejected sediment during 13-16 July. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Colima | Mexico : Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia – Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, mainly from the NE side of the crater, and two small explosions were recorded during 5-12 July. Five lahars descended the Montegrande ravine. An overflight on 9 July revealed that the diameter of the vent had slightly increased, likely caused by subsidence, and other areas of minor subsidence within the crater were noted. An area of collapsed material on the outer W wall was also identified. Temperatures inside the crater were 116 degrees Celsius, lower than the temperature of 250 degrees Celsius recorded in May. The temperatures in the fumarolic area decreased from 202 degrees Celsius in May to 169 degrees. A thermal camera located S of the volcano recorded thermal anomalies associated with fumarolic emissions. Weather conditions sometimes prevented observations of the crater.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-16 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 5-12 July that sent ash plumes up to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted S. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images on 11 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 July an ash plume from Ibu rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE based on satellite images and weather models. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 4-5 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Kerinci | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 July an ash plume from Kerinci rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, based on satellite images and weather models.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was visible in satellite images during 4-5 and 7 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network recorded as many as 25 eruptive events during 1-7 July. The events were not followed by visible ash emissions, though observations were hindered by weather conditions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 8-14 July the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 475,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating two block-and-ash flows that traveled 1 km down the Gendol drainage on 13 and 14 July. White plumes rose as high as 300 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that an explosive event at Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater recorded at 0657 on 14 July was associated with a long-period earthquake signal. The explosion ejected incandescent material onto areas near the crater. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 9-15 July there were 49-326 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. As many as three explosions per day were recorded, though weather conditions often prevented visual characterization of ash emissions. An explosion at 1949 on 11 July generated an ash plume that rose 2.8 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale).

Reventador | Ecuador : IG reported that during 10-16 July seismic data from Reventador’s network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Weather often prevented views of the summit area, although during clear conditions ash plumes were visible rising at least 600 m above the crater rim and drifting W and N. Blocks were observed rolling 500-600 m down the flanks on 10 and 16 July.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-16 July ash plumes from Sangeang Api were visible in satellite images rising to 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) | 8.108°S, 112.922°E | Elevation 3657 m

The Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 July an ash plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WNW based on satellite images and weather models. Ash plumes rose to 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. on 13 July and drifted NW and W.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 6-12 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Villarrica | Chile : POVI reported that webcam images captured deposits of incandescent material on the flank 300 m from Villarrica’s summit crater in the morning of 15 July. Incandescent material from lava fountaining ejected above the crater rim was periodically visible on 16 July.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 10 July – 16 July 2019

Great Sitkin | Andreanof Islands (USA) : On 15 July AVO reported that seismicity at Great Sitkin had decreased to background levels during the past few weeks with no evidence of eruptive activity in geophysical or satellite data. The Aviation colour Code was lowered to Green and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 July an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, based on satellite data and weather models.

Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO increased the Aviation colour Code for Shishaldin to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory on 12 July following several weeks of increasing seismicity and elevated temperatures in the summit crater identified in satellite images. In addition incandescence in the crater was visible during an overflight. Seismic tremor continued to be elevated at least through 16 July.

Stromboli | Aeolian Islands (Italy) : INGV reported that the paroxysmal explosive sequence at Stromboli on 3 July changed the morphology of the crater terrace. The rim of the terrace facing the Sciara del Fuoco was removed, and the N1 and N2 vents in Area N (north crater area, NCA) had enlarged and merged into one. After the paroxysmal event explosive activity rapidly decreased, though it remained more intense than normal. The vents of Area C-S (South Central crater area) produced explosions regularly during 8-14 July, and fed lava flows that traveled about halfway down the Sciara del Fuoco. Material from the lava-flow fronts rolled all the way to the coastline. A new lava flow from Area N (north crater area, NCA) began at 1900 on 14 July.

Ubinas | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that seismic activity at Ubinas remained elevated during 1-15 July; volcano-tectonic events averaged 279 per day and long-period events (indicating fluid movement) averaged 116 events per day. Minor bluish emissions rose from the crater. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (on a 4-level scale).

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 3 July – 9 July 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that at 1044 on 4 July an explosion at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) generated an ash plume that rose 3.2 km above the crater rim and ejected material 1.1 km from the vent. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that minor explosive events on 4 and 5 July at Asosan’s Nakadake Crater ejected sediment from the vent. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 1,300 tons per day on 5 July. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that minor explosive events on 4 and 5 July at Asosan’s Nakadake Crater ejected sediment from the vent. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 1,300 tons per day on 5 July. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Colima | Mexico : Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia – Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, mainly from the NE side of the crater, and three small explosions were recorded during 29 June-5 July. A thermal camera located S of the volcano recorded thermal anomalies associated with emissions. Weather conditions sometimes prevented observations of the crater.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-9 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 28 June-5 July that sent ash plumes up to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted in multiple directions. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images on 29 June and 1 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 July an ash plume from Ibu rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, based on satellite images and weather models. An intermittent thermal anomaly was also visible. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 30 June-3 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was visible in satellite images during 1-3 July, and ash plumes drifted as far as 85 km E and SE during 1-2 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network recorded eight eruptive events during 1-7 July. The events were not followed by visible ash emissions, though observations were hindered by weather conditions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 28 June-4 July the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not significantly change and was an estimated 475,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images taken on 4 July. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE flank, generating one block-and-ash flow that traveled 1.1 km down the Gendol drainage on 1 July. White plumes rose as high as 200 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that an explosive event at Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater recorded at 0550 on 9 July was associated with a long-period earthquake signal. The explosion ejected incandescent material onto areas near the crater. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-colour scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-colour scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.

Sangay | Ecuador : IG reported that a new eruption at Sangay began on 7 May and was continuing as of 3 July. Activity was concentrated at two eruptive centers: the Central Crater and the Ñuñurcu dome (located 190 m SSE of Central Crater). Sporadic explosions at Central Crater produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted W and SW. The Ñuñurcu dome fed at least three lava flows that traveled down the SE flank. Collapses of the lava-flow fronts generated small pyroclastic flows and numerous block flows that traveled as far as 3,888 m elevation. Staff of the Parque Nacional Sangay observed atypical sedimentation consisting of volcanic material at the confluence of the Upano River and its tributary, the Volcán River, 23 km SE of the summit. Areas of steaming in the Volcán River were possibly from hot blocks originating from the volcano. Residents of Macas (42 km SSE) reported increased turbidity in the Upano from pyroclastic material.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-5 July ash plumes from Sangeang Api were visible in satellite images rising to 2.1-2.3 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SW and W. During 6-9 July multiple ash plumes rose to 3-4.6 km (10,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NW, and SW. Thermal anomalies were visible on 4 and 8 July.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 28 June-5 July. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 3 July – 9 July 2019

Manam | Papua New Guinea : According to the United Nations in Papua New Guinea an estimated 1,410 people from seven villages remained affected from the 27 June eruption of Manam; as many as 455 homes and many gardens had been destroyed. The Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 July ash plumes rose to 5.5-6.1 km (18,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW.

Semisopochnoi | United States : An increase in seismicity above background levels on 4 July at Semisopochnoi prompted AVO to raise the Aviation colour Code to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). Elevated seismicity continued through at least 9 July. No eruptive activity was detected in regional infrasound data, and cloudy conditions obscured satellite views of the volcano.

Stromboli | Aeolian Islands (Italy) : An intense paroxysmal explosive sequence at Stromboli on 3 July resulted in injuries to tourists climbing the volcano and one death. INGV surveillance cameras recorded intensification of Strombolian activity at the N1 and N2 vents in Area N (north crater area, NCA) and vent S2 in Area C-S (South Central crater area), and spattering at S1 and C in Area C-S. An explosion from Area C-S at 1459 was followed by lava effusion and a flow that traveled into the upper part of Sciara del Fuoco. At different times during 1543-1545 lava overflowed from all vents and a strong explosion occurred at N1 at 1545. The paroxysmal phase began at 1546; two lateral blasts presumably from Area C-S were recorded at 1546:10 and 1546:20, just 10 seconds apart from each other. The main paroxysmal explosion, at 1546:40 ejected incandescent material that fell onto the flanks and generated an ash plume rose 4 km above the summit that drifted SW. Material from the lateral explosions and eruption column collapse generated two highly turbulent pyroclastic flows that reached the sea. Hot material set fire to vegetation on the W side of the island. Strombolian activity resumed at 1559, though the explosions were more intense than normal. Spattering from Area C-S continued on 4 July, feeding lava flows that continued to enter the ocean.

Ulawun | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : RVO reported that diffuse white plumes rose from Ulawun’s summit crater and the North Valley vent during 1-4 July, and from the summit only during 5-9 July. The seismic station located 11 km NW of the volcano recorded three volcanic earthquakes and some sporadic, short-duration, volcanic tremors during 1-3 July. The seismic station 2.9 km W of the volcano was restored on 4 July and recorded small sub-continuous tremors. Some discrete high-frequency volcanic earthquakes were also recorded on most days. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 100 tonnes per day on 4 July. According to the United Nations in Papua New Guinea 7,318 people remained displaced within seven sites because of the 26 June eruption.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 26 June – 2 July 2019

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26 June-2 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Ebeko was identified in satellite images on 23 June; weather clouds obscured views of the volcano on the other days during 21-28 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was visible in satellite images on 23 and 26 June, and a gas-and-steam plume with some ash content drifted E on 26 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network recorded periods of increased activity with three eruptive events detected during 25-26 June, four events detected on 1 July, and one event on 2 July. The event was not followed by visible ash emissions, though observations were hindered by weather conditions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2 km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Sangeang Api | Indonesia : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 27 June ash plumes from Sangeang Api rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. A thermal anomaly was also visible. On 29 June a discrete ash puff that rose to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted NW, and steam emissions were ongoing.

Santa Maria | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported increased activity at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex in a special bulletin posted on 2 July. They note that during the previous two years activity was characterized as low, with 10-15 weak explosions per day, and emissions composed mainly of water vapor with minor ash content. Beginning on 28 June the seismic network recorded a gradual increase of the number and intensity of explosions, with 35-40 events per day. These explosions were weak-to-moderate intensity and produced ash plumes that rose 1-1.3 km above the complex and drifted S and SW. Ashfall was recorded in areas downwind including Patzulín, El Faro, Horizontes, Las Marías, Loma Linda, and San Marcos Palajunoj. Block avalanches descended the SE, S, and SW flanks and sometimes generated ash plumes.

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that at 0830 on 26 June an eruption at Semeru produced an ash plume that rose around 600 m above the summit and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale from 1-4); the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the active crater and 4 km away on the SSE flank.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 21-28 June. Explosions on 24 and 27 June generated ash plumes that rose to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SW, respectively. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Stromboli | Aeolian Islands (Italy) : INGV reported that during 30 June-2 July activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing low-to-medium intensity Strombolian explosions and degassing from multiple vents within the crater terrace. A high-energy explosion from vent C in Area C-S (South Central crater area) was recorded at 2303 on 25 June. The event lasted for about 28 seconds, ejected material that fell onto most of the crater terrace and into the Valle della Luna, and widened the vent.

White Island | North Island (New Zealand) : GeoNet reported that earthquake swarms at White Island were recorded in May and beginning on 20 June. Even though both swarms were interpreted as fault activity and no unusual volcanic activity was observed, GeoNet increased monitoring of the volcano. Earthquake swarms can increase the likelihood of landslides. A gas flight was conducted on 26 June because of the heightened monitoring and measurements were found to be 1,886 tons per day, three times the previous values measured in May. This was also the highest value recorded since 2013 and the second highest since regular measurements began in 2003. The Volcanic Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and the Aviation colour Code was raised to Yellow. Two more gas flights found lower emissions values; sulfur dioxide flux was 880 tons per day on 28 June and 693 tons per day on 29 June. In addition, new measurements found no changes to fumarolic temperatures and modeling of ground deformation suggested the ongoing earthquake swarm was tectonic and did not reflect increased volcanic activity. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered back to 1, with no change to the Aviation colour Code.

Yasur | Vanuatu : On 27 June the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) reported that recent observations and data from Yasur’s seismic network confirmed ongoing sometimes strong explosions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). VMGD reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 395-m-radius permanent exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds.

Rare Lake of Bubbling Lava Discovered on Remote Antarctic Island

A huge lake of sizzling hot lava has been discovered in a volcano on a remote sub-Antarctic island in the South Atlantic Ocean. It’s only the eighth lake of molten rock ever discovered on Earth.

Scientists from University College London (UCL) and the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) discovered this rare lava lake on Mount Michale volcano on Saunders Island in the South Sandwich Islands, about 1,000 miles (1,610 kilometers) north of the eastern edge of Antarctica’s Weddell Sea.

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Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 26 June – 2 July 2019

Manam | Papua New Guinea : RVO reported that RSAM values at Manam began increasing on 27 June and then spiked from 540 to over 1,400 within a short period of time (~30 min). According to news articles, residents reported hearing thundering noises around 0100 on 28 June. An eruption plume was visible in satellite images around 0620 drifting SW, around the time residents reported the start of the eruption. The Darwin VAAC issued a notice stating that by 0910 the ash plume had risen to 15.2 km (50,000 ft) a.s.l. and was drifting SW. Pyroclastic flows descended the W and NE flanks. About 3,775 people evacuated their homes. Additional ash plumes rose to 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, and by 1700 the higher-altitude plume had detached from the volcano and continued to drift SW. A thermal anomaly persisted on 29 June, and the next day an ash plume rose to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Air Niugini stopped all aircraft overnighting in Madang due to the eruption. On 30 June they resumed operations at Hoskins airport, after rerouting all flights out of nearby airports during 29-30 June.

Mauna Loa | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : HVO reported that during the previous several months earthquake and ground deformation rates at Mauna Loa were elevated above background levels. During the first half of 2018 the seismic network recorded fewer than 20 shallow, small-magnitude earthquakes per week. Following a significant earthquake swarm in October, the rate increased to at least 50 events per week beneath the summit, upper Southwest Rift Zone, and upper west flank. These locations were similar to those that preceded eruptions in 1975 and 1984. GPS and satellite RADAR data detected deformation consistent with recharge of the shallow magma storage system. The increased seismicity and deformation indicated that Mauna Loa is no longer at background levels, prompting HVO to raise the Aviation colour Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. HVO noted that an eruption was not imminent.

Raikoke | Kuril Islands (Russia) : SVERT and KVERT reported that during 25 June-1 July steam-and-gas plumes with ash rose 1.5-2 km above Raikoke and drifted WNW based on satellite images. The Aviation colour Code was lowered to Yellow on 25 June and then to Green on 27 June.

Ubinas | Peru : Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) and INGEMMET reported that seismic activity at Ubinas remained elevated during 24-30 June; volcano-tectonic events averaged 200 per day and signals indicating fluid movement averaged 38 events per day. Emissions of gas, water vapor, and ash rose from the crater and drifted N and NE based on webcam views and corroborated with satellite data. According to a news article an eruption plume rose 400 m above the crater rim and drifted 10 km NE. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow (on a 4-level scale) on 27 June.

Ulawun | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : RVO reported that on 27 June diffuse white plumes rose from Ulawun’s summit crater and incandescence was visible from pyroclastic or lava flow deposits on the N flank from the significant eruption the day before. The seismic station located 11 km NW of the volcano recorded low RSAM values between 2 and 50. According to the Darwin VAAC a strong thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images, though not after 1200. Ash from 26 June explosions continued to move away from the volcano and became difficult to discern in satellite images by 1300, though a sulfur dioxide signal persisted; ash at 13.7 km (45,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted SW to SE and dissipated by 1620, and ash at 16.8 km (55,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted NW to NE and dissipated by 1857. RVO noted that at 1300 on 27 June satellite images captured an ash explosion not reported by ground-based observers likely due to cloudy weather conditions. The Alert Level was lowered to Stage 1. RSAM values slightly increased at 0600 on 28 June and fluctuated between 80 to 150 units afterwards. During 28-29 June diffuse white plumes continued to rise from the crater and from the North Valley vent. On 29 June a news article stated that around 11,000 people remained evacuated to shelters.

Volcanos

Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 19 June – 25 June 2019

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that during 17-21 June very small eruptive events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were recorded, as well as periodic crater incandescence through 24 June. An explosion recorded on 24 June generated a plume that rose 1.6 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite and wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19-25 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 14-15 June that sent ash plumes up to 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted NW and NE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 21 June ash plumes from Ibu rose to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NE based on satellite images and weather models. During 24-25 June ash plumes rose to 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and ESE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 14-15 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was visible in satellite images on 14 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network recorded at least four eruptive events during 17-24 June. The events were not followed by visible ash emissions, though observations were hindered by weather conditions. A Surtseyan eruption was recorded by a local webcam around 0909 on 25 June. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 17-23 June the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 458,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating two block-and-ash flows that traveled 1.2 km down the Gendol drainage on 17 and 20 June. White plumes rose as high as 500 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Poas | Costa Rica : On 21 June OVSICORI-UNA reported that small, frequent phreatic eruptions from vent A (Boca Roja) were visible during good viewing conditions at Poás ejecting material less than 10 m high.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : CENAPRED reported that each day during 19-25 June there were 26-201 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. An explosion at 2058 on 21 June produced an ash plume that rose 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted W, and ejected incandescent material less than 1 km onto the flanks. Minor ashfall was reported in areas downwind including the municipalities of Ozumba (18 km W), Atlautla (16 km W), and Ecatzingo (15 km SW) in the State of Mexico, and in Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW) in the State of Morelos. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-colour scale).

Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) : The Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 June an ash plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E based on satellite images.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 14-21 June. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Villarrica | Chile : According to POVI, observers near Villarrica during 20-21 June reported hearing noises from the volcano. The webcam recorded incandescent material ejected above the crater rim.