Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 12 April – 18 April 2017

Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-17 April ash plumes from Bagana rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, SE, and S.

Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 7-14 April lava continued to advance down the NW flank of Bezymianny’s lava dome. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images daily. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Bogoslof | Fox Islands (USA) : Increased seismicity at Bogoslof was recorded by stations on nearby islands starting around 1501 on 15 April, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation colour Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. The seismic activity subsided a few hours later; there was no evidence of renewed eruptive activity from infrasound, lightning, or satellite data during 15-18 April.

Colima | Mexico : On 14 April the Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia – Universidad de Colima reported that during the previous week seismic data revealed 48 high-frequency events, 30 long-period events, 3.3 hours of tremor, 10 landslides, and two explosions.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-18 April ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SW, W, and N.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 7-14 April several explosions at Ebeko were observed by residents of Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island) about 7 km E. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.6 km (8,500 ft) a.s.l. Minor amounts of ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk on 12 April. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that the effusive eruption from a vent in the saddle between Etna’s Southeast Crater (SEC) – New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone complex ended during 8-9 April. During 10-11 April lava effused from a vent located at the S base of the SEC. The lava flow traveled SE and flowed several hundred meters down the W wall of the Valle del Bove. In the evening of 13 April short-lived explosive activity occurred at a vent at the S flank of the SEC cone at about 3,200 m elevation. That vent and another at 3,150 m elevation produced lava flows for a few hours. Lava also effused from the vent at the S base of SEC, 3,010 m elevation, during 13-14 April, traveling SE and down the W wall of the Valle del Bove on top of the flows from 10-11 April.

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : During 12-18 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu’u ‘O’o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. A growing lava delta is building where the lava enters the water. Surface lava flows were active above the pali.

Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia : Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that at 1822 on 14 April a seismic event at Nevado del Ruiz was recorded, associated with a gas-and-ash emission recorded by the webcam that rose almost 1.2 km above the crater. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-colour scale).

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 17 April a webcam recorded the ejection of incandescent material from Nevados de Chillán, and a possible ash plume that rose to 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that during 10-16 April seismicity at Sabancaya increased compared to the previous week, with an average of 37 explosions recorded per day. Ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the crater rim (13 April) and drifted more than 40 km NW and SE. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 17 April ash plumes rose to an altitude of 7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The next day ash emissions were recorded by the webcam. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 7-14 April lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome, and an ash plume that drifted 82 km SW on 10 April. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung | Indonesia : Based on PVMBG observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-15 and 17 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4.6 km (10,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, and E.

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported a passive ash emission from Turrialba on 16 April. An event at 0751 on 17 April generated a plume with minor ash content that rose 500 m above the crater and drifted SW. A diffuse plume consisting of gas and sometimes ash rose 1 km above the crater and drifted W on 18 April.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 12 April – 18 April 2017

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that a very small eruption at Minamidake summit crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) occurred on 16 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on ground and satellite observations, PVMBG and the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-13 and 17 April ash plumes from Ibu rose 1.5-1.8 km (4,900-5,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and SW.

Kambalny | Southern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that observers in the South Kamchatka Sanctuary noted an ash plume from Kambalny rising to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. on 9 April. Ash plumes identified in satellite images drifted 50 km NE on 9 April and about 170 km SE the next day. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : RVO reported that incandescence from both Manam’s Southern Crater and Main Crater fluctuated in intensity during 1-15 April, and incandescent material was occasionally ejected from the craters. RSAM values averaged around 100. On 15 April RSAM values fluctuated, with a peak of 450 at 0600 and other peaks throughout the day, though with RSAM values not as high. RVO interpreted the high RSAM values as changes in seismicity from discrete low-frequency earthquakes, to sub-continuous volcanic tremor, and then to continuous volcanic tremor.

During 0300-0800 on 16 April RSAM values were high (peaking at 400); there were no reports of associated anomalous eruptive activity, though RVO noted communication problems. Based on RSAM data, a small-to-medium eruption began between 1400 and 1600 on 16 April. Seismicity was initially erratic, and peaked at about 0030 and 0100 on 17 April. A Dugulava village resident (S side of island) briefly viewed the eruption and reported that incandescent material was ejected from the crater and fell into the N and SW valleys. Rumbling and roaring was also heard. Activity decreased around 0600 and remained low until the next day. Strong Strombolian activity at Southern Crater was observed at about 1300 on 18 April, and roaring and rumbling was heard. Dense and dark ash clouds rose a few hundred meters above the crater rim and drifted NW. Two small pyroclastic flows descended the SE and SW valleys, terminating at about 1 km a.s.l. At about 1500 Strombolian activity subsided, coinciding with a very loud explosion. Activity fluctuated though was low until 2100, and then afterwards light-gray ash plumes rose above the crater. White-to-gray ash plumes rose above Main Crater during 17-18 April, and small ejections of material occurred about every five minutes.

Poas | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that a strong 40-minute phreatic eruption from an area in between the lava dome and the hot lake at Poás was recorded on 12 April starting at 1830. An eruption column consisting of water, altered rocks, sediments, and gases was produced; the height of the column could not be determined due to poor visibility. Ash fell around the crater and to the NW in Bajos del Toro. A water-level increase of 2 m in the Desague River, with headwaters at the S part of the crater, was noted. According to news articles the National Emergency Committee (CNE) evacuated residents living near the Desague River. The Poás Volcano National Park closed the next day.

At 1546 on 13 April an eight-minute-long eruption produced a plume that rose 500 m above the crater rim. The event rendered a webcam on the N rim inoperable. Events at 0758 (strong) and 1055 on 14 April generated plumes of an unknown height. A 10-minute-long event which began at 0810 on 15 April again produced a plume of unknown height. Frequent (2-3 events per hour) small short-lived phreatic eruptions were recorded by seismographs during 15-16 April. A plume that rose 500 m followed an eruption at 0946 on 16 April. Later that day, at 1350, an event generated a plume that rose 1 km. A news article reported that boulders as large as 2 m in diameter fell in an area 30 m away from a tourist trail, breaking a water pipe. Rocks also damaged fences and concrete floors in viewing areas. Small, frequent, and short-lived phreatic eruptions continued to be recorded through 18 April. A video posted by a news outlet showed an explosion ejecting incandescent material.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 5 April – 11 April 2017

Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-9 April ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, S, and W.

Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 1-6 April lava continued to advance down the NW flank of Bezymianny’s lava dome. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images daily. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange.

Bogoslof | Fox Islands (USA) : On 5 April AVO reported that the Aviation Colour Code for Bogoslof was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory based on the absence of detected activity at the volcano for the past three weeks; the last large explosion occurred on 8 March. No significant volcanic activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or satellite data during 6-11 April.

Chirinkotan | Kuril Islands (Russia) : Based on Tokyo VAAC data, SVERT reported that on 7 April an ash plume from Chirinkotan rose to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Yellow (on a four-Colour scale).

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Cleveland was detected in seismic, infrasound, or satellite data since an explosion occurred on 24 March. The Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory on 5 April.

Colima | Mexico : On 7 April the Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia – Universidad de Colima reported that during the previous week the seismic data revealed 38 high-frequency events, 23 long-period events, 2.4 hours of tremor, 18 landslides, and two low-intensity explosions. The sulfur dioxide flux was as high as 640 tons/day.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-11 April ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, SE, and S.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 4-6 April several explosions at Ebeko were observed by residents of Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island) about 7 km E. Ash plumes rose as high as 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. Minor amounts of ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk on 6 April. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-Colour scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that the eruptive episode that began on 15 March from a vent in the saddle between Etna’s Southeast Crater (SEC) – New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone complex was characterized by Strombolian activity and ash emissions. Lava had traveled down into the Valle del Bove from the W rim; by the afternoon of 18 March almost continuous collapses of parts of the lava flow produced several avalanches of incandescent material which reached the base of the wall. Explosive activity had greatly declined earlier that morning. The collapsing stopped by early the next evening, 19 March, and the lava reached the base of the valley. That lava flow stopped advancing on 20 March though a few lava flows closer to the vent remained active the next few days. On 21 March a new lava flow expanded SSW, but then stopped in the last days of March at an elevation of 2,300 m. A few more lava flows had followed a similar path in early April and then also stopped at the same elevation. Around 28 March a new pit crater had formed on the S part of the pyroclastic cone which had formed around the SEC-NSEC saddle vent. Strong glow form the pit crater was observed at night.

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 6-11 April explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 850 m above the crater rim and drifted as far as11 km W, SW, and S. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), and Santa Sofía (12 km SW). Rumbling from the explosions was sometimes heard. During 10-11 April incandescent material was ejected 100-150 m above the crater, generating minor avalanches in the area of the cone.

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : During 5-11 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu’u ‘O’o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna from the end of the lava tube, about 20 m above the water. A growing lava delta was an estimated 25 m out from the base of the sea cliff by 10 April. Surface lava flows were active above the pali and on the coastal plain.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 1-4 April explosions at Klyuchevskoy generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 1-2 and 4 April, and ash plumes that drifted 400 km in multiple directions. No explosions were recorded after 4 April; the Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Yellow on 10 April.

Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia : Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 4-11 April seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz continued to indicate unrest. Signals indicating fracturing rock slightly increased in both size and number as compared to the previous week. During 10-11 April a period of short-duration and very low energy drumbeat signals were recorded, indicating rising magma. Water vapor and gas continued to be emitted. Gas, steam, and ash plumes rose 1.5 km above the crater rim on 10 April and drifted NW. Thermal anomalies were identified on 4, 6, and 7 April. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-Colour scale).

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 6 and 8 April a webcam recorded ash emissions rising from Nevados de Chillán and dissipating quickly. On 6 April the emissions rose as high as 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. Minor ash emissions were observed on 10 April.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that incandescence from Pacaya’s Mackenney cone was visible at night and at dawn during 6-11 April. Weak explosions accompanied by rumbling was sometimes noted.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that during 3-9 April seismicity at Sabancaya declined compared to the previous week, with an average of 27 explosions recorded per day. Ash plumes rose as high as 3.2 km above the crater rim (on 8 April) and drifted more than 40 km NW and NE. Ashfall was reported in Pinchollo (20 km N), Maca, and Chivay. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that diffuse ash plumes drifted 100 km E on 9 April. Intermittent ash emissions during 10-11 April rose as high as 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-Colour scale).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 1-6 April lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome, and ash plumes that drifted 20 km SE on 3 April. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-Colour scale).

Sinabung | Indonesia : Based on PVMBG observations and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7 and 9-11 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.4-8.2 km (11,000-27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, and WNW.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 5 April – 11 April 2017

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that an explosion from the Minamidake summit crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) at 1004 on 4 April generated an ash plume that rose 1.2 km above the crater rim. During field work later that day, scientists observed ashfall in Sakurajima Koike-cho in Kagoshima (3 km NW). The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Banda Api | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that seismicity at Banda Api had been increasing since the beginning of March, though during 1-4 April seismic patterns were similar to those recorded before an eruption in 1988. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach Banda Api within a 1-km radius of the summit area.

Cerro Azul | Isla Isabela (Ecuador) : IG reported that deformation data showed continued inflation after 20 March, indicating that the volume of the magma intrusion below Cerro Azul’s SSE flank had increased. Seismicity decreased after 25 March possibly signifying a halt in the intrusion.

Dempo | Indonesia : Observers at the PVMBG Dempo observation post reported that during January and February no plumes rose from Dempo’s crater, and during 1 March-4 April diffuse white plumes rose no higher than 50 m above the crater. Seismicity increased from 21 March to 4 April. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale from 1-4) on 5 April. Visitors and residents were advised not to approach the craters within 3 km.

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on ground observations, PVMBG reported that during 7-8 April ash plumes from Ibu rose to an altitude of 1.7 km (5,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. During 10-11 April ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.6 km (4,900-5,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S.

Kambalny | Southern Kamchatka (Russia) : Based on satellite data, KVERT reported that Kambalny was quiet on 1 April. Explosions on 2 April generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l., and then minor ash emissions occurred at least through 6 April. Ash plumes drifted 200 km E and SE during 2-4 April, and a thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 3-4 April. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 29 March-4 April 2017

Ambrym | Vanuatu : The Wellington VAAC reported that a low-level ash emission from Ambrym was identified in satellite images on 3 April.

Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 March an ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. On 31 March a NOTAM (notice to airmen) and pilot report suggested that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.1 km though ash was not identified in mostly clear satellite images. An ash plume observed on 2 April rose to an altitude of 2.1 km and drifted almost 40 km E.

Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 24-31 March lava continued to advance down the NW flank of Bezymianny’s lava dome. A thermal anomaly was identified daily in satellite images. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange.

Bogoslof | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 29 March-4 April, and satellite views were often obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 28-29 March. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.

Chirinkotan | Kuril Islands (Russia) : Based on Tokyo VAAC satellite data, SVERT reported that on 31 March an ash plume from Chirinkotan rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 165 km NE. The Aviation Colour Code was raised to Yellow (on a four-colour scale) on 2 April.

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Cleveland was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 29 March-4 April, and satellite views were often obscured by clouds. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.

Colima | Mexico : On 31 March the Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia – Universidad de Colima reported that during the previous week the seismic data revealed 45 high-frequency events, 33 long-period events, 2.5 hours of tremor, 11 landslides, and two low-intensity explosions. The sulphur dioxide flux was 360 tons/day, an increase compared to the week before.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29 March-4 April ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 24-31 March several explosions per day at Ebeko were observed by residents of Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island) about 7 km E. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-3.4 km (4,900-11,200 ft) a.s.l. Minor amounts of ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk on 26 March. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that activity at Fuego increased on 1 April, with the beginning of a new effusive eruption, the third one in 2017. Explosions occurring an average of 10 per hour generated shock waves that vibrated local structures. An ash plume rose an estimated 1.3 km and drifted 10 km W, SW, and S; weather clouds hindered observations. Later that day lava fountains rose 100-300 m high and fed lava flows that traveled 400 m down the Trinidad (S) and Las Lajas (SE) drainages. The effusive phase lasted about 16 hours, ending on 2 April, with lava flows stopping as far as 3 km, and expanding into the Santa Teresa (W) drainage. Ash plumes drifted as far as 80 km W, causing ashfall in areas downwind including Atitlan Lake, Chicacao, Mazatenango, Retalhuleu, and El Palmar. On 4 April explosions generated ash plumes that rose 750 km and drifted S, and avalanches pf material descended the Ceniza drainage.

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : During 29 March-4 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu’u ‘O’o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna from the end of the lava tube, about 20 m above the water. National Park Service officials estimated that the lava delta was about 40 m wide and 100 m long. Surface lava flows were active above the pali, and small, short-lived breakouts occurred on the coastal plain.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 27-30 March explosions at Klyuchevskoy generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano during the previous week, and ash plumes that drifted 300 km in multiple directions. The Aviation Colour Code remained

Lokon-Empung | Sulawesi (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that on 25 March six climbers between the ages of 15 and 20 climbed to Lokon-Empung’s Tompaluan Crater, into the restricted area, where one of the climbers fell into the crater and died. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 1.5 km.

Reventador | Ecuador : During 28 March-4 April IG reported a high level of seismic activity including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador. Although cloud cover often prevented visual observations, activity was noted almost daily. During 28 March-3 April steam, gas, and ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater rim and drifted SW and NE. Incandescence from the crater was sometimes visible during the night. Incandescent blocks rolled 1 km down the flanks on 1 April, and 1.6 km down the SW flank on 3 April. A small lava flow was observed traveling 1.6 km down the SW flank on 3 April.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that during 27 March-2 April there were an average of 41 explosions recorded per day. The number and magnitude of hybrid events decreased while long-period events increased. Ash plumes rose as high as 4.8 km above the crater rim and drifted more than 40 km NW, N, and SW. Ashfall was reported in Pinchollo (20 km N) and Cabanaconde (22 km NW). Overall activity increased compared to the precious week. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 24-31 March lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome, and ash plumes that drifted 20 km SW on 24 and 26 March. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung | Indonesia : Based on PVMBG observations, satellite data, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 March an ash plume from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 1 April an explosion at Suwanosejima generated a plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that ash-and-gas plumes from Turrialba rose 500 m above the crater during 31 March-1 April. Ashfall was reported at the Juan Santamaría airport, 48 km W. Ash plumes rose 500 m at 1700 on 2 April, and 200 m at 0601 on 4 April.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 29 March-4 April 2017

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported very small eruptions at Minamidake summit crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 28-29 March. Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 4 April an ash plume rose to an altitude of 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that an eruption at Ibu at 0058 on 29 March generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (5,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Another event at 0757 on 3 April produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 1.7 km (5,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. Seismicity on both days was characterized by events indicating explosions and avalanches.

Kambalny | Southern Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that the eruption that began at Kambalny at 2110 on 24 March continued through 31 March. Observers reported that explosions generated ash plumes that rose 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images showed ash plumes drifting 2,000 km W, SW, S, and SE during 24-30 March. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 3 April a webcam recorded a strong ash puff from Nevados de Chillán rising to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting E.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 22 March-28 March 2017

Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-28 March a minor ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km SW and W.

Bogoslof | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 22-28 March, and satellite views were often obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 21-23 March. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : A small explosion at Cleveland was detected in both seismic and infrasound data at 0815 on 24 March, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. Cloud cover at 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. obscured satellite observations of the volcano, and no ash cloud was observed from this event. Cloud cover prevented views during 25-27 March, and slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 27-28 March; nothing significant was detected in seismic or infrasound data.

Colima | Mexico : On 24 March the Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia – Universidad de Colima reported that during the previous week the seismic data revealed 70 high-frequency events, 25 long-period events, over one hour of tremor, four landslides, and four low-intensity explosions. The sulphur dioxide flux was 11-74 tons/day, reflecting low volcanic activity.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22-28 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 20-22 March several explosions at Ebeko, observed by residents of Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island) about 7 km E, generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.7-1.8 km (5,600-5,900 ft) a.s.l. Minor amounts of ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk on 21 March. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 25-28 March explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-12 km SW and S. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Los Yucales, and El Porvenir. Shock waves and rumbling from the explosions were sometimes heard; structures in local areas were rattled from explosions during 26-27 March. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 300 m above the crater rim, and sometimes landed 250 m away. Avalanches of material were confined to the crater. INSIVUMEH noted that activity had become more intense on 27 March.

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : During 22-28 March HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. A small collapse of the S part of the crater wall at 0035 on 23 March was followed by a short time of increased spatter.

Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu’u ‘O’o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna from the end of the lava tube, about 20 m above the water; the ocean entry was not consistently visible during the week. Surface lava flows were active above the pali, with most of the activity located 1.9-2.9 km from the 61G vent. During 24-25 March HVO noted that a delta had begun to form at the ocean entry, for the first time since the previous one had collapsed on 31 December 2016.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : On 24 March KVERT reported that gas-and-steam emissions continued to rise from Klyuchevskoy’s crater, and a weak thermal anomaly was occasionally identified in satellite images. The Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Green (the lowest level on a four-colour scale). On 28 March a gas, steam, and ash plume identified in satellite data rose to altitudes of 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 108 km ENE. The Aviation Colour Code was raised to Yellow. The next day an ash plume rose as high as 7.5 km (24,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km SW. The Aviation Colour Code was raised to Orange.

Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia : Based on info from Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales, the Washington VAAC reported that on 26 March ash plumes from Nevado del Ruiz rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. On 27 March the observatory reported that at 1029 a gas-and-ash plume rose 1.6 km above the crater rim and drifted E. The emission was associated with a seismic event and was also recorded by a webcam.

Pacaya | Guatemala : In a special report from 24 March INSIVUMEH noted that lava fountains 25-50 m high rose from a new cone forming in the crater of Pacaya’s Mackenney’s cone. The accumulated material had been filling up the cone, causing lava to flow through the crater breach formed in 2010. During 25-28 March small Strombolian explosions ejected material as high as 30 m above the cone.

Sabancaya | Peru : Based on webcam images, satellite views, and seismic data the Buenos Aires VAAC reported sporadic gas-and-ash puffs from Sabancaya during 24-27 March, sometimes rising as high as 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. Weather clouds often hindered observations of the volcano, especially during 22-3 and 25 March.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 17-24 March lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome, and ash plumes that drifted 126 km WNW on 19 and 21 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung | Indonesia : Based on PVMBG observations, satellite data, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22, 24-25, and 27 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-4.3 km (11,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, and E.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 28 March an explosion at Suwanosejima generated a plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that a weak ash emission from Turrialba was visible during 1800-1940 on 25 March. Periods of more intense crater incandescence, from possible Strombolian activity, corresponded to higher tremor amplitude during 0330-0530 on 26 March. Later that day a small plume with a minor amount of ash rose 500 m above the crater and drifted S and SE. An event at 0752 on 28 March generated an ash plume that rose 300 m and drifted S.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 22 March-28 March 2017

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that an explosion at Minamidake summit crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) detected at 1803 on 25 March generated a pyroclastic flow that traveled 1.1 km down the S flank. An explosion at 2228 produced an ash plume that rose 1.4 km above the crater rim. Ash fell in the vicinity of the volcano and as far as 4.5 km E. Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes drifted SE and E that same day.

Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 17-24 March lava continued to advance down the NW flank of Bezymianny’s lava dome. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images on 17, 19, and 22 March. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange.

Cerro Azul | Isla Isabela (Ecuador) : IG reported that increased seismicity at Cerro Azul began on 15 February and was characterized by the presence of volcano-tectonic events. A 1-hour-long swarm occurred the next day, and then afterwards only sporadic events were detected, some of which were located in the Sierra Negra volcano region. Sporadic events located at Sierra Negra continued to be detected during 8-13 March. A 30-minute-long swarm was recorded on 18 March. Earthquakes became more frequent and intense on 19 March, and another swarm occurred during 0700-1800 on 20 March; earthquake locations migrated SW, to the SE part of Cerro Azul during 19-20 March. Another swarm was detected during 1915-2200 on 21 March, with most magnitudes between 2.4 and 3, though the highest was 3.6. Deformation during 8-20 March was detected in satellite data, characterized by 14 cm of inflation at the SE flank and 11.2 cm of deflation at the summit. Deformation and seismic data suggested the emplacement of a sill 3.5-6.3 km below the SE flank.

Chirinkotan | Kuril Islands (Russia) : SVERT noted that no further activity at Chirinkotan was visible after the ash emission on 21 March. The Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Green (on a four-colour scale).

Manam | Papua New Guinea : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 24 March a steam plume from Manam, possibly with a minor ash content, drifted 75 km SE.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : On 24 March OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during an overflight of Nevados de Chillán scientists observed a single 100-m-diameter crater, the result of two active craters merging together sometime between 7 and 15 March. In addition there were five explosions in the period of about an hour, ejecting tephra 900 m high which dispersed SE. The pattern of activity changed on 17 March with increased frequency and magnitude of the explosions. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the middle level on a three-colour scale, and the public was reminded not to approach the craters within a 3-km radius.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity

Kambalny, Russia: The Russian volcano erupted after 250 years of sleep. The last time Kambalny volcano erupted, the United States was not yet a country. But the Russian volcano awoke last week, after a nearly 250-year snooze, with a violent eruption. Kambalny is the southernmost volcano on Russia’s Kamchatka Peninsula, an area about the size of California that is home to more than 300 volcanoes. In fact, the peninsula hosts the world’s highest concentration of active volcanoes, and so eruptions are common. But Kambalny surprised scientists when it shook awake on March 24 and began to erupt.

The volcano’s eruption and 60-mile-long ash plume were seen from space:

Screen Shot 2017 03 29 at 12 34 55 PM

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 15 March-21 March 2017

Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 17 March an ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 85 km W.

Bogoslof | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 15-21 March, and satellite views were either obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 16-17 and 20-21 March. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.

Colima | Mexico : Based on Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia – Universidad de Colima observations, the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil de Colima reported that during 10-16 March there were three low-intensity explosions at Colima. A slight decrease of sulfur dioxide was detected. During an overflight scientists observed gas emissions from small explosion craters on the floor of the main crater; there was no evidence of a new lava dome. The report noted that the public should not enter the 6-km-radius exclusion zone.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-21 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Ash plumes during 19-21 March drifted 150-280 km SW, W, and NW.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that on 10 March several explosions at Ebeko, observed by residents of Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island) about 7 km E, generated plumes that rose to an altitude of 1.6 km (5,200 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 16-21 March explosions at Fuego generated sometimes dense ash plumes that rose as high as 950 m above the crater rim and drifted 10-12 km W, SW, and S. Ashfall was reported in Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), and El Porvenir. Shock waves and rumbling from the explosions were sometimes heard. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 200 m above the crater rim. During 18-19 March incandescent material was ejected 200 m away from the crater. In a special report dated 21 March INSIVUMEH noted that lahars had begun descending the Santa Teresa and Las Lajas drainages at 1623 based on seismic data; it had been raining for a few days.

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : During 15-21 March HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu’u ‘O’o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna; the lava stream was 1-2 m wide on 16 March, and plunged into the ocean from the end of the lava tube, about 20 m above the water. Surface lava flows were active above the pali.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : On 16 March KVERT reported that although gas-and-steam emissions continued to rise from Klyuchevskoy’s crater, and a weak thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images, no explosions had been detected since 8 March. The Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-colour scale).

Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia : Based on satellite and webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 17 and 20 March ash plumes from Nevado del Ruiz rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and SW.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported small Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney during 16-20 March. Lava traveled 30 m W, and sometimes crater incandescence was visible at night and at dawn.

Sabancaya | Peru : Based on webcam images, satellite views, and seismic data the Buenos Aires VAAC reported sporadic gas-and-ash puffs from Sabancaya during 14-15, 17-19, and 21 March, sometimes rising as high as 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. Weather clouds often hindered observations of the volcano. Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that at 0802 on 21 March an ash plume rose 2 km and drifted more than 30 km SSE.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 10-17 March lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome, and ash plumes that drifted 100 km NW on 9 and 14 March. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung | Indonesia : Based on PVMBG observations, satellite data, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-18 and 21 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-5.5 km (10,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, N, W, and WSW.

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 20-21 March weak gas emissions at Turrialba contained sporadic, small amounts of ash, and rose no higher than 100 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. Volcanic tremor had medium and variable amplitude, and a few low-frequency earthquakes were recorded.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 15 March-21 March 2017

Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that lava continued to advance down Bezymianny’s NW flank during 10-17 March, and gas-and-steam plumes rose from the crater. A thermal anomaly was visible each day in satellite images. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange.

Chirinkotan | Kuril Islands (Russia) : Based on satellite images, SVERT reported that on 21 March an ash plume from Chirinkotan rose to an altitude of 6 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 15 km E. The Aviation Colour Code was raised to Yellow (the second lowest on a four-colour scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that during the morning of 15 March lava began to flow down the S flank of Etna’s Southeast Crater (SEC) – New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone complex. Activity rapidly intensified at 0800, and by 1000 near-constant Strombolian explosions were generating ash plumes. The lava flow reached the base of the cone and traveled S. By late afternoon the lava was advancing on top of lava flows from the previous eruption. The intensity of the Strombolian activity reached a peak around 1840-1845, and by the evening both the eruptive activity and seismicity gradually diminished. Just before midnight a new lava flow began to effuse from a vent on the S flank of the cone. On 16 March at 1243 a phreato-magmatic explosion occurred at the front of a lava flow where it contacted an area covered with snow. An INGV-Osservatorio Etneo volcanologist was injured in the explosion, suffering minor bruises. A news article noted that about 10 people were injured during the event.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 21 March weak ash emissions from Manam rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and E.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : Based on satellite and webcam views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 15-17 March gas-and-ash plumes from Nevados de Chillán rose to altitudes of 4-5.5 km (13,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and sometimes drifted NE and SW.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 8 March-14 March 2017

Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 14 March a minor ash emission from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW.

Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that an explosive eruption at Bezymianny began at about 1330 on 9 March. Based on webcam observations, at 1454 an ash plume rose to altitudes of 6-7 km (20,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 20 km NE. The Aviation Colour Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale). About 30 minutes later, at 1523, an ash plume rose to altitudes of 7-8 km (23,000-26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 60 km NW. KVERT raised the Aviation colour Code to Red. Satellite data showed a 14-km-wide ash plume drifting 112 km NW at an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. Later that day a 274-km-long ash plume identified in satellite images drifted NW at altitudes of 4-4.5 km (13,100-14,800 ft) a.s.l.; the majority of the leading part of the plume contained a significant amount of ash. A lava flow traveled down the NW part of the lava dome. The Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Orange. Ash plumes drifted as far as 500 km NW.

Bogoslof | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that an explosive event at Bogoslof began at about 2236 on 7 March, indicated in seismic, lightning, and infrasound data, and lasted about three hours. Though ash was not immediately visible in satellite data, AVO raised the Aviation Colour Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Later, satellite images showed a large ash cloud rising to an altitude of 10.7 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting E. This event was the first detected eruptive activity since 19 February, and more than 1,000 lightning strokes related to the volcanic eruption cloud were detected during this event, by far the highest number observed to date. In addition the seismic levels were among the highest detected since the beginning of the eruption. Satellite images from 8 March showed that the W part of the island had grown significantly. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch on 9 March.

Two earthquakes swarms were detected during 9-11 March; the first began at 1750 on 9 March and ended at 1400 on 10 March, and the second was detected from 1900 on 10 March to 0500 on 11 March. Mildly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 10-11 March. A third swarm began at 0500 on 12 March. A short-duration event, from 1131 to 1143 on 13 March, produced a small ash cloud that rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSW. AVO noted that after the event, the level of seismic activity declined and the repeating earthquakes, detected for much of the previous several days, stopped. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were observed in two satellite images from 13 March. A photograph taken by a pilot showed a low-level, billowy steam plume rising from the general area of the intra-island lake.

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : On 8 March AVO reported that satellite data collected over the previous few weeks did not indicate any growth of Cleveland’s lava dome that was emplaced sometime in late January; weakly elevated surface temperatures detected in satellite data were consistent with cooling lava and not indicative of new activity. The Aviation colour Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory.

Colima | Mexico : Based on Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia – Universidad de Colima observations, the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil de Colima reported that during 3-9 March there were six low-intensity explosions at Colima. At 1823 on 7 March an ash plume rose about 2 km above the crater and drifted SW. The report noted that the public should not enter the 8-km-radius exclusion zone.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8 and 10-14 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 3-10 March there were 15 explosions at Ebeko observed by residents of Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island) about 7 km E. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that six explosions and weak shockwaves were detected at Fuego on 9 March. Ash plumes rose 900 m and drifted S and SW. Ashfall was reported in Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), and Santa Cecilia. Avalanches of material traveled towards the Santa Teresa (W), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages. The number and intensity of explosions increased on 10 March. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.7 km and drifted more than 10 km W and SW. Ash fell in areas downwind including Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km N). During 11-14 March explosions produced ash plumes that rose 0.5-1 km and drifted 8-12 km NW, W, and SW. Ash fell in multiple areas including Panimaché I and II, Morelia, and Santa Sofía. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 200 m above the crater rim.

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : During 8-14 March HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu’u ‘O’o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Surface lava flows were active on the coastal plain, and on and above the pali.

Nevados de Chillan | Chile : OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that the number of phreatomagmatic explosions at Nevados de Chillán increased on 7 March, after a month and a half of no explosive activity. Explosions from the craters on the E side of Volcán Nuevo and the Volcán Arrau dome complex produced plumes that rose 300 m on 7 March, and then subsequently seismicity and surficial activity gradually increased. On 11 March there were eight explosions detected. Plumes rose as high as 500 m and incandescent material was ejected 500 m away from the craters. A series of eight explosions beginning at 0617 on 16 March generated ash plumes that rose 1.5 km and again ejected incandescent material. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the middle level on a three-colour scale, and the public was reminded not to approach the craters within a 3-km radius.

Popocatepetl | Mexico : Each day during 8-14 March CENAPRED reported 87-200 steam and gas emissions from Popocatépetl, and crater incandescence on most nights. Weather clouds often prevented visual observations. Explosions were detected during 8-11 March: at 0809 on 8 March, at 1847 on 9 March, at 0539 on 10 March, and at 0435 on 11 March. Two additional explosions on 11 March, at 1347 and 1842, generated ash plumes that rose less than 2 km above the crater rim and drifted ENE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Sabancaya | Peru : Based on webcam images, satellite views, and seismic data the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 8-14 March sporadic gas-and-ash puffs rose from Sabancaya. Weather clouds often hindered observations of the volcano. On 9 March ash plumes rose to an altitude of 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and SW. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. on 12 March.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 3-10 March lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome, and ash plumes that drifted NW 5 and 8-9 March. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Sinabung | Indonesia : Based on PVMBG observations, satellite data, webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-14 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-5.2 km (10,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, SW, and S.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 8 March-14 March 2017

Chirinkotan | Kuril Islands (Russia) : SVERT noted that no further activity at Chirinkotan was visible after the ash emission on 1 March. The Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Green (on a four-colour scale) on 5 March.

Ebulobo | Flores Island (Indonesia) : Based on PVMBG observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 March an ash plume from Ebulobo rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. (800 m above the summit) and drifted W.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite data during 2-3, 5, and 8-9 March. Explosions on 8 March produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 20 km NW. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 1 March-7 March 2017

Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-5 and 7 March ash plumes from Bagana rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km W and SW.

Bogoslof | Fox Islands (USA) : AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof had been detected in seismic, infrasound, or sometimes cloudy satellite data during 1-7 March. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.

Bulusan | Luzon (Philippines) : PHIVOLCS reported that a weak phreatic eruption at Bulusan occurred at 1357 on 2 March. The event was recorded by the seismic network as an explosion-type earthquake followed by short-duration tremor that lasted approximately 26 minutes. Visual observations were obscured by weather clouds, although a small steam plume rising from the SE vent was recorded by a webcam. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).

Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) : AVO reported that during 1-4 and 6-7 March slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images of Cleveland, along with minor steaming from the summit visible in clear webcam images during 1-3 March. Cloud cover prevented views on 5 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-3 and 5-6 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, S, SE, and E.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : KVERT reported that, according to observers in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island) about 7 km E, explosions at Ebeko on 24, 26, and 27 February and 2 March produced ash plumes that rose as high as an altitude of 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) : During 1-7 March HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu’u ‘O’o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Surface lava flows were active on the coastal plain, along the E side of 61G, about 500 m upslope of the FEMA emergency road. Other surface flows above the pali appeared during 1-2 March.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 March an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N.

Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia : Based on satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 4 March an ash plume from Nevado del Ruiz rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 31 km NW.

Sabancaya | Peru : Based on webcam images, satellite views, and seismic data the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 1-4 and 6-7 March sporadic gas-and-ash puffs rose from Sabancaya. Weather clouds often hindered observations of the volcano. On 3 March ash plumes rose to altitudes of 9.1-10.4 km (30,000-34,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, and S. Intermittent increases in seismicity were also detected that day.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that during 24 February-3 March lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Explosions on 24 February generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome, and ash plumes that drifted 95 km NE during 25-26 February. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Orange.

Sinabung | Indonesia : Based on PVMBG observations, satellite data, webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-2, 5, and 7 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4.3 km (10,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NW, W, and SW.

Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) : Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 3-4 March explosions at Suwanosejima generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 1 March-7 March 2017

Chirinkotan | Kuril Islands (Russia) : Based on satellite images, SVERT reported that on 1 March an ash plume from Chirinkotan rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 165 km E. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Yellow (on a four-colour scale).

Etna | Sicily (Italy) : INGV reported that Strombolian activity at Etna’s New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone had gradually intensified beginning at 1700 on 27 February. Lava overflowed the vent, quickly traveled down the S flank, and then slowed after reaching the gently sloping terrain. The flow spread SSW, towards the old cone of Monte Frumento Supino. During 27-28 February frequent Strombolian explosions ejected incandescent lava fragments up to 200 m above the vent. During a field survey on 28 February INGV-Osservatorio Etneo staff observed sporadic emissions of vapor and brownish ash from several vents within the NSEC. A new pyroclastic cone around the vent had grown higher than the highest points on the SEC (Southeast Crater) or NSEC. The lava flow slowly advanced on top of the snow, and by 1 March was about 1.5 km from the vent. By the late evening, activity declined, and the volcanic tremor amplitude rapidly diminished.

Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) :KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite data during 25 February and 1-2 March. At 1340 on 2 March a gas, steam, and ash plume recorded by the webcam rose to altitudes of 8-9 km (26,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km NE and NW. The Aviation Colour Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 2-3 and 6-7 March weak Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney cone ejected material 5-10 m above the crater rim. Crater incandescence was visible at night and at dawn during 4-5 March.

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that the 28-day eruption at Piton de la Fournaise, beginning on 31 January and ending on 27 February, produced less than 10 million cubic meters of lava.