Disease

Yellow fever – Brazil

Between July and mid-October 2017, a total of 71 suspected yellow fever cases were reported in São Paulo State, Brazil.

From July to early November, 580 epizootics in non-human primates (NHPs) were reported in São Paulo State, with an increase in the number of cases reported from 10 September 2017. Of these, 120 were confirmed for yellow fever, 233 are under investigation, 74 were classified as undetermined, and 153 were ruled out.

These are the first human cases of yellow fever that have been reported in Brazil since June 2017. These cases, alongside the occurrence of epizootics in the urban area of São Paulo City and in municipalities that were previously considered not at risk for yellow fever, are a public health concern.

Measles – England

There is a measles outbreak reported in Leeds and Liverpool, according to the NHS yesterday. While they offer no specifics on cases and locations on their social media posts, NHS advises people to ensure they and their children are vaccinated.

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Disease

Southeast Michigan hepatitis A outbreak – Update

In a follow-up on the hepatitis A outbreak reported in southeastern Michigan, the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services (MDHHS) continues to see an elevated number of hepatitis A cases in the area. Since the beginning of the outbreak in August 2016 through Nov. 7, 2017, 495 cases have been recorded, including 19 deaths.

Nigeria – Yellow Fever – Update

Since the first case of yellow fever was reported in Ifelodun LGA in Kwara State, Nigeria in mid-September, the outbreak has expanded to a number of states, according to the Nigeria Center for Disease Control (NCDC). A yellow fever (YF) outbreak is currently active in Nigeria with three states recording confirmed cases (Kwara, Kogi, and Zamfara). 15 cases have now been confirmed.

Disneyland Park Linked to Legionnaire’s Disease Outbreak

Disneyland park in California has been connected to an outbreak of Legionnaire’s disease. The Legionnaire’s disease outbreak includes 12 people that were infected by the illness. Of these 12 people, nine had visited the Disneyland park in California. 10 of the 12 people were hospitalized after contracting the disease. The people infected by the disease were between the ages of 52 and 94.

Disneyland says that it was able to track the Legionnaire’s disease outbreak to two of its 18 cooling towers at the park. These towers were closed down and disinfected to clear them of the disease.

Disease

Yellow Fever – Brazil

The discovery of one dead monkey infected with yellow fever on the north side of Brazil’s largest city has prompted São Paulo health authorities to launch a massive vaccination campaign.

The virus responsible for the disease has been blamed for at least 261 Brazilian deaths since December, almost entirely in the southeast of the country.

The mosquito-borne disease originated in Africa and was discovered to be back in Brazil after hundreds of dead monkeys were found infected in the country’s Atlantic rainforest late last year.

Yellow fever is one of the world’s most deadly tropical diseases, causing symptoms such as muscle aches and fever, progressing to liver damage and kidney failure.

Typhoid – North Korea

A typhoid outbreak that began in June in the North Korean province of Ryanggang, on the China border, has the country’s health officials struggling to contain the spread of the diseas While there is scant detail on the outbreak, the report notes that typhoid related deaths are increasing among the older people.

The outbreak is attributable to the North’s poor water supply, sewerage system and the Yalu River as many local residents in Ryanggang Province drink the water from the river without boiling it.

Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus – China

On 8 and 15 September 2017, the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China (NHFPC) notified WHO of two additional laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China.

Trichinosis – Russia

At least 17 people, including several children have contracted the parasitic infection, trichinosis, after eating smoked brown bear cub in Kataiga village in the Tomsk region of Russia. Local hunters gifted the meat to villagers. Some meat was smoked, some salted. In total, 29 cases of poisoning were detected in the region.

Trichinellosis, or trichinosis is a parasitic disease caused most commonly by the roundworm Trichinella spiralis. If someone ingests undercooked or raw meat with the encysted larvae, the stomach acid releases the larvae which mature to adults in the intestine.

African Countries Should Prepare For Black Death – WHO

South Africa is among nine countries identified by the World Health Organisation as priority areas to be prepared for the plague as the deadly disease spreads through Madagascar. Madagascar, which has travel and trade ties to South Africa, has experienced a large outbreak of plague, also known as the “black death”, since August.

The disease has claimed 124 lives in Madagascar since August 1, according to reports, and about 1200 suspected, probable and confirmed cases have been recorded so far.

WHO said countries should remain prepared – because of their travel and trade links with Madagascar. The list included Ethiopia, Kenya, Mauritius, Mozambique, Réunion, Seychelles, South Africa and Tanzania.

Disease

Europe: Typhoid outbreak

European health officials have reported a typhoid outbreak that has sickened at least four people since the summer that has been linked to the European Rainbow gathering that took place in Tramonti di Sopra, Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, Italy, from 23 July to 21 August 2017.

To date, French authorities have reported three cases and Germany has reported one case. European authorities say additional cases are possibly associated with this event.

Yellow Fever Case in Nigeria

The Federal Government has confirmed a case of Yellow Fever in a young girl in Oke Owa Community, Ifelodun Local Government Area of Kwara State. Officials have begun an investigation in the affected area and surrounding communities and a vaccination campaign is being planned.

Disease

Brazil announces end of yellow fever outbreak

The Brazilian Ministry of Health announced Wednesday the end of the yellow fever outbreak. The last case was registered in June. The outbreak that started in Dec 2016 accounted for 777 confirmed cases and 261 deaths. The southeastern region was the hardest hit seeing the vast majority of cases. Nearly 37 million yellow fever vaccine doses were dispensed.

Cholera Outbreak in the Philippines

More than 100 people have been sickened by cholera in a barangay, or village near the beaches in the municipality of Oas in Albay province, according to an Abante report. One individual has died. The outbreak began Saturday when residents of the area started reported symptoms of vomiting and diarrhea.

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Saudi Arabia

Between 13 and 30 August 2017, the National IHR Focal Point of Saudi Arabia reported 12 additional cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), including one death and, and one death from a previously reported case.

Foot and Mouth Disease – Zimbabwe

The government of Botswana announced on Thursday that it has donated a vaccine for Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) to neighbouring Zimbabwe in order to assist the country to tackle the current disease outbreak. Botswana, once an avid exporter of beef to the European Union (EU) faced serious challenges with several outbreaks of FMD over the last couple of years, greatly jeopardizing the growth of the country’s beef sector. Most of the previous FMD outbreaks in Botswana started in the northern and northwestern regions of the country, where it shares a border with Zimbabwe.

Disease

Yellow fever – France – French Guiana

On 22 August 2017, the National IHR Focal Point for France notified a confirmed fatal case of yellow fever in a 43-year-old Brazilian woman in French Guiana, with an unknown vaccination status. This was the first case of yellow fever in Fresh Guiana in two decades.

Disease

Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus – China

The Chinese National Health and Family Planning Commission announced an additional 12 human cases of avian influenza A(H7N9) from June 2 to 8.

Angola: Yellow fever vaccine campaign

The Department of Public Health announced that a yellow fever vaccination campaign began Jun 9 and will run through Jun 18. A total of 135, 571 people aged 6 months and older will be vaccinated against yellow fever during this period in the municipalities of Cambundi-Catembo, Cahombo, Quela and Cangandala.

Wildlife

Brazil’s response to a huge yellow fever outbreak: Kill the monkeys

A yellow fever outbreak is tearing through Brazil leaving thousands dead in its wake — thousands of monkeys, that is. Not only are monkeys susceptible to yellow fever, but local residents have begun pre-emptively killing monkeys, incorrectly assuming that they help spread the disease.

As the epidemic advances, rural towns are littered with monkey corpses falling from trees, terrifying villagers. One town in the southern state of Minas had to close down a park after 38 dead monkeys were found in its premises.

But, contrary to local lore, these primates don’t transmit the disease. In fact, they play a crucial role in preventing its spread. A dead monkey is often the first sign yellow fever has reached a new town, which can serve as an alarm bell for authorities directing vaccination campaigns. It’s a warning sign that allows health officials to monitor the disease before it hits humans.

Scientists are calling the monkey killings an environmental disaster. Howler monkeys have been hit the hardest, with more than 1,000 killed since January. As the disease spreads north, scientists are particularly worried about the endangered brown howler monkeys, which have already started to become infected and face the threat of extinction.

Imrs

Disease

Yellow Fever in Brazil – Update

Since the beginning of the yellow fever outbreak in Brazil in December 2016, health officials have reported 2,210 cases of yellow fever, with 604 being laboratory confirmed. Of this number, 302 deaths were recorded of which 202 were confirmed. The case fatality rate (CFR) is 33 percent among confirmed cases.

France reports anthrax outbreak

On Monday, France reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) about an anthrax outbreak on a Germainvilliers, Haute-Marne farm in northeastern France. Anthrax was confirmed by the ANSES National laboratory for Animal health, Maisons-Alfort.

Twelve cattle died, out of the 467 susceptible on the farm between 1st and 2nd of April 2017. A history of anthrax case dating back 2013 was reported on the same farm. Non-vaccinated bovines on the farm were immediately treated with antibiotic therapy and no other death has been reported ever since.

Officials say the source of the anthrax is suspected to be the result of fodder coming from a previously infected field. Investigation is ongoing.

Nepal – Kala-azar Outbreak

A Kala-azar outbreak at Raiterkhor in Ishworpur Municipality of Sarlahi district has led to the death of a woman and hospitalisation of 13 villagers.

Kala-azar, also known Visceral Leishmaniasis or black fever, is the second largest parasitic killer in the world, after malaria, taking lives of 20,000 people annually, according to the WHO.

Disease

Yellow fever – Suriname

On 9 March 2017, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) in the Netherlands reported a case of yellow fever to WHO. The patient is a Dutch adult female traveller who visited Suriname from the middle of February until early March 2017. She was not vaccinated against yellow fever.

Meningitis – Nigeria – Update

Nearly 270 people, most of them children, have died in the past five months during the latest meningitis outbreak to hit Nigeria, public health officials said Wednesday. Presently there are 1,828 suspected cases with 269 deaths in about 15 states.

Disease

Malaria in South Africa

In March 2017, the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) received official reports of possible locally-transmitted cases of malaria detected in non-endemic areas of Limpopo, North West, and Gauteng Provinces. Forty-nine cases were reported between the end of February through March 12, 2017 in Thabazimbi and Lephalele municipalities in the western Waterberg District of North West Province.

Yellow Fever – Brazil

As of 16 March 2017, yellow fever virus transmission continues to expand towards the Atlantic coast of Brazil in areas not previously deemed to be at risk for yellow fever transmission. Last week, the state of Rio de Janeiro reported its two first confirmed autochthonous yellow fever cases in the municipality of Casimiro de Abreu, located 135 km from the city of Rio de Janeiro. This has prompted the World Health Organization Secretariat to determine that the State of Rio de Janeiro, with the exception of the urban areas of Rio de Janeiro City and Niterói, should also be considered at risk for yellow fever transmission.

Disease

Yellow fever – Brazil

As of 3 March 2017, yellow fever virus transmission continues to expand towards the Atlantic coast of Brazil in areas not deemed to be at risk for yellow fever transmission prior to the revised risk assessment.

The current advice by the WHO Secretariat for international travellers going to areas of Brazil deemed to be at risk, including Espírito Santo State in its entirety, is the following:

– Vaccination against yellow fever at least 10 days prior to the travel. Note that, as per Annex 7 of the International Health Regulations (2005), a single dose of a yellow fever vaccine approved by WHO is sufficient to confer sustained immunity and life-long protection against yellow fever disease. Travellers with contraindications for yellow fever vaccine (children below 9 months, pregnant or breastfeeding women, people with severe hypersensitivity to egg antigens, and severe immunodeficiency) or over 60 years of age should consult their health professional for advice;

– Adoption of measures to avoid mosquito bites;

– Awareness of symptoms and signs of yellow fever;

– Seeking care in case of symptoms and signs of yellow fever, while travelling and upon return from areas at risk for yellow fever transmission.

Disease

Yellow fever – Brazil

From 1 December 2016 to 22 February 2017, a total of 1336 cases of yellow fever infection (292 confirmed, 920 suspected, and 124 discarded), including 215 deaths (101 confirmed, 109 suspected, 5 discarded), have been detected in six states (Bahia, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Norte, São Paulo, and Tocantins). The estimated case fatality rate is 35% for confirmed cases and 12% for suspected cases. To date, the majority (86%) of the confirmed cases are men and of which, approximately 81% are aged between 21 and 60 years.

Disease

Seoul virus – United States of America and Canada

On 24 January 2017, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), through their Health Alert Network (HAN) publication, reported 8 cases of infection with Seoul virus in the states of Wisconsin (n=2) and Illinois (n=6). The first two cases were reported in early December 2016, when two home-based pet rat breeders in Wisconsin State developed an acute febrile illness, later confirmed as Seoul virus infection. Rats (Rattus norvegicus) at some facilities also tested positive for Seoul virus. Human infection with Seoul virus is not commonly found in the United States; this virus family also includes Sin Nombre virus, which is the most common hantavirus causing disease in the United States. This is the first known outbreak associated with pet rats in the United States.

Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus – China

Between 19 January and 14 February 2017, a total of 304 additional laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection have been reported to WHO from mainland China though the China National IHR focal point.

Brazil yellow fever – Update

The Brazilian Ministry of Health, or Ministério da Saúde now puts the confirmed yellow fever death toll at 89.

Through Friday, 263 cases of the disease have been confirmed (Minas Gerais-225, Espírito Santo-34 and São Paulo-4). In all, 1,258 suspected cases were reported, of which 882 remained under investigation and 113 were discarded.

Concerning yellow fever related fatalities, of the 200 reported deaths, 89 were confirmed, 108 are still under investigation and 3 were discarded. Eighty-six percent of the confirmed deaths were reported in Minas Gerais (77).

Disease

Africa yellow fever outbreak declared over

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) declared the end of the yellow fever outbreak in that country today following a similar announcement in Angola on 23 December 2016, bringing an end to the outbreak in both countries after no new confirmed cases were reported from both countries for the past six months.

Cholera in Somalia

The Somalia Ministry of Health reported 913 new suspected cases of cholera, including 10 deaths and a case–fatality rate of 1.1% during the past week. This brings the total since the beginning of the year to 4026 cumulative suspected cases of cholera including 57 deaths (case–fatality rate 1.5%).

China – Bird Flu

Two additional human cases of avian influenza A(H7N9) have been reported on Mainland China.