Disease

Europe: Typhoid outbreak

European health officials have reported a typhoid outbreak that has sickened at least four people since the summer that has been linked to the European Rainbow gathering that took place in Tramonti di Sopra, Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, Italy, from 23 July to 21 August 2017.

To date, French authorities have reported three cases and Germany has reported one case. European authorities say additional cases are possibly associated with this event.

Yellow Fever Case in Nigeria

The Federal Government has confirmed a case of Yellow Fever in a young girl in Oke Owa Community, Ifelodun Local Government Area of Kwara State. Officials have begun an investigation in the affected area and surrounding communities and a vaccination campaign is being planned.

Advertisements

Disease

Brazil announces end of yellow fever outbreak

The Brazilian Ministry of Health announced Wednesday the end of the yellow fever outbreak. The last case was registered in June. The outbreak that started in Dec 2016 accounted for 777 confirmed cases and 261 deaths. The southeastern region was the hardest hit seeing the vast majority of cases. Nearly 37 million yellow fever vaccine doses were dispensed.

Cholera Outbreak in the Philippines

More than 100 people have been sickened by cholera in a barangay, or village near the beaches in the municipality of Oas in Albay province, according to an Abante report. One individual has died. The outbreak began Saturday when residents of the area started reported symptoms of vomiting and diarrhea.

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Saudi Arabia

Between 13 and 30 August 2017, the National IHR Focal Point of Saudi Arabia reported 12 additional cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), including one death and, and one death from a previously reported case.

Foot and Mouth Disease – Zimbabwe

The government of Botswana announced on Thursday that it has donated a vaccine for Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) to neighbouring Zimbabwe in order to assist the country to tackle the current disease outbreak. Botswana, once an avid exporter of beef to the European Union (EU) faced serious challenges with several outbreaks of FMD over the last couple of years, greatly jeopardizing the growth of the country’s beef sector. Most of the previous FMD outbreaks in Botswana started in the northern and northwestern regions of the country, where it shares a border with Zimbabwe.

Disease

Yellow fever – France – French Guiana

On 22 August 2017, the National IHR Focal Point for France notified a confirmed fatal case of yellow fever in a 43-year-old Brazilian woman in French Guiana, with an unknown vaccination status. This was the first case of yellow fever in Fresh Guiana in two decades.

Disease

Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus – China

The Chinese National Health and Family Planning Commission announced an additional 12 human cases of avian influenza A(H7N9) from June 2 to 8.

Angola: Yellow fever vaccine campaign

The Department of Public Health announced that a yellow fever vaccination campaign began Jun 9 and will run through Jun 18. A total of 135, 571 people aged 6 months and older will be vaccinated against yellow fever during this period in the municipalities of Cambundi-Catembo, Cahombo, Quela and Cangandala.

Wildlife

Brazil’s response to a huge yellow fever outbreak: Kill the monkeys

A yellow fever outbreak is tearing through Brazil leaving thousands dead in its wake — thousands of monkeys, that is. Not only are monkeys susceptible to yellow fever, but local residents have begun pre-emptively killing monkeys, incorrectly assuming that they help spread the disease.

As the epidemic advances, rural towns are littered with monkey corpses falling from trees, terrifying villagers. One town in the southern state of Minas had to close down a park after 38 dead monkeys were found in its premises.

But, contrary to local lore, these primates don’t transmit the disease. In fact, they play a crucial role in preventing its spread. A dead monkey is often the first sign yellow fever has reached a new town, which can serve as an alarm bell for authorities directing vaccination campaigns. It’s a warning sign that allows health officials to monitor the disease before it hits humans.

Scientists are calling the monkey killings an environmental disaster. Howler monkeys have been hit the hardest, with more than 1,000 killed since January. As the disease spreads north, scientists are particularly worried about the endangered brown howler monkeys, which have already started to become infected and face the threat of extinction.

Imrs

Disease

Yellow Fever in Brazil – Update

Since the beginning of the yellow fever outbreak in Brazil in December 2016, health officials have reported 2,210 cases of yellow fever, with 604 being laboratory confirmed. Of this number, 302 deaths were recorded of which 202 were confirmed. The case fatality rate (CFR) is 33 percent among confirmed cases.

France reports anthrax outbreak

On Monday, France reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) about an anthrax outbreak on a Germainvilliers, Haute-Marne farm in northeastern France. Anthrax was confirmed by the ANSES National laboratory for Animal health, Maisons-Alfort.

Twelve cattle died, out of the 467 susceptible on the farm between 1st and 2nd of April 2017. A history of anthrax case dating back 2013 was reported on the same farm. Non-vaccinated bovines on the farm were immediately treated with antibiotic therapy and no other death has been reported ever since.

Officials say the source of the anthrax is suspected to be the result of fodder coming from a previously infected field. Investigation is ongoing.

Nepal – Kala-azar Outbreak

A Kala-azar outbreak at Raiterkhor in Ishworpur Municipality of Sarlahi district has led to the death of a woman and hospitalisation of 13 villagers.

Kala-azar, also known Visceral Leishmaniasis or black fever, is the second largest parasitic killer in the world, after malaria, taking lives of 20,000 people annually, according to the WHO.

Disease

Yellow fever – Suriname

On 9 March 2017, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) in the Netherlands reported a case of yellow fever to WHO. The patient is a Dutch adult female traveller who visited Suriname from the middle of February until early March 2017. She was not vaccinated against yellow fever.

Meningitis – Nigeria – Update

Nearly 270 people, most of them children, have died in the past five months during the latest meningitis outbreak to hit Nigeria, public health officials said Wednesday. Presently there are 1,828 suspected cases with 269 deaths in about 15 states.

Disease

Malaria in South Africa

In March 2017, the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) received official reports of possible locally-transmitted cases of malaria detected in non-endemic areas of Limpopo, North West, and Gauteng Provinces. Forty-nine cases were reported between the end of February through March 12, 2017 in Thabazimbi and Lephalele municipalities in the western Waterberg District of North West Province.

Yellow Fever – Brazil

As of 16 March 2017, yellow fever virus transmission continues to expand towards the Atlantic coast of Brazil in areas not previously deemed to be at risk for yellow fever transmission. Last week, the state of Rio de Janeiro reported its two first confirmed autochthonous yellow fever cases in the municipality of Casimiro de Abreu, located 135 km from the city of Rio de Janeiro. This has prompted the World Health Organization Secretariat to determine that the State of Rio de Janeiro, with the exception of the urban areas of Rio de Janeiro City and Niterói, should also be considered at risk for yellow fever transmission.

Disease

Yellow fever – Brazil

As of 3 March 2017, yellow fever virus transmission continues to expand towards the Atlantic coast of Brazil in areas not deemed to be at risk for yellow fever transmission prior to the revised risk assessment.

The current advice by the WHO Secretariat for international travellers going to areas of Brazil deemed to be at risk, including Espírito Santo State in its entirety, is the following:

– Vaccination against yellow fever at least 10 days prior to the travel. Note that, as per Annex 7 of the International Health Regulations (2005), a single dose of a yellow fever vaccine approved by WHO is sufficient to confer sustained immunity and life-long protection against yellow fever disease. Travellers with contraindications for yellow fever vaccine (children below 9 months, pregnant or breastfeeding women, people with severe hypersensitivity to egg antigens, and severe immunodeficiency) or over 60 years of age should consult their health professional for advice;

– Adoption of measures to avoid mosquito bites;

– Awareness of symptoms and signs of yellow fever;

– Seeking care in case of symptoms and signs of yellow fever, while travelling and upon return from areas at risk for yellow fever transmission.

Disease

Yellow fever – Brazil

From 1 December 2016 to 22 February 2017, a total of 1336 cases of yellow fever infection (292 confirmed, 920 suspected, and 124 discarded), including 215 deaths (101 confirmed, 109 suspected, 5 discarded), have been detected in six states (Bahia, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Norte, São Paulo, and Tocantins). The estimated case fatality rate is 35% for confirmed cases and 12% for suspected cases. To date, the majority (86%) of the confirmed cases are men and of which, approximately 81% are aged between 21 and 60 years.

Disease

Seoul virus – United States of America and Canada

On 24 January 2017, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), through their Health Alert Network (HAN) publication, reported 8 cases of infection with Seoul virus in the states of Wisconsin (n=2) and Illinois (n=6). The first two cases were reported in early December 2016, when two home-based pet rat breeders in Wisconsin State developed an acute febrile illness, later confirmed as Seoul virus infection. Rats (Rattus norvegicus) at some facilities also tested positive for Seoul virus. Human infection with Seoul virus is not commonly found in the United States; this virus family also includes Sin Nombre virus, which is the most common hantavirus causing disease in the United States. This is the first known outbreak associated with pet rats in the United States.

Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus – China

Between 19 January and 14 February 2017, a total of 304 additional laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection have been reported to WHO from mainland China though the China National IHR focal point.

Brazil yellow fever – Update

The Brazilian Ministry of Health, or Ministério da Saúde now puts the confirmed yellow fever death toll at 89.

Through Friday, 263 cases of the disease have been confirmed (Minas Gerais-225, Espírito Santo-34 and São Paulo-4). In all, 1,258 suspected cases were reported, of which 882 remained under investigation and 113 were discarded.

Concerning yellow fever related fatalities, of the 200 reported deaths, 89 were confirmed, 108 are still under investigation and 3 were discarded. Eighty-six percent of the confirmed deaths were reported in Minas Gerais (77).

Disease

Africa yellow fever outbreak declared over

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) declared the end of the yellow fever outbreak in that country today following a similar announcement in Angola on 23 December 2016, bringing an end to the outbreak in both countries after no new confirmed cases were reported from both countries for the past six months.

Cholera in Somalia

The Somalia Ministry of Health reported 913 new suspected cases of cholera, including 10 deaths and a case–fatality rate of 1.1% during the past week. This brings the total since the beginning of the year to 4026 cumulative suspected cases of cholera including 57 deaths (case–fatality rate 1.5%).

China – Bird Flu

Two additional human cases of avian influenza A(H7N9) have been reported on Mainland China.

Disease

Bolivia – Yellow Fever

The Bolivia Ministry of Health has confirmed yellow fever in a 27-year-old male Danish tourist who likely contracted the mosquito borne virus while visiting the jungle, according to a Terra report. This is the first confirmed case in the country in ten years.

Saudi Arabia: MERS case reported in Mecca

The Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health reported an additional infection of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from a patient in Mecca. The 60-year-old male expatriate is reportedly hospitalized in critical condition. The probable source of the infection is noted as direct contact with camels.

Bird flu hits poultry markets in major Chinese city

Authorities in China’s third-largest city warned that about 30 percent of its live poultry markets were contaminated with the H7N9 avian flu virus, as an eastern province ordered markets to shut, state media reported on Saturday.

East China’s Zhejiang province has ordered all markets across the province to halt live poultry trade on Saturday over bird flu concerns

In January, Zhejiang reported 35 infections of the H7N9 strain of bird flu, according to the provincial Health and Family Planning Commission.

Earlier on Saturday, China Daily said the disease control authority in Guangzhou, capital of the southern Chinese province of Guangdong, urged residents to avoid contact with live poultry after tests in the past week.

Wildlife

Yellow Fever Taking Heavy Toll on Monkeys in Brazil’s Rainforest

The worst yellow fever outbreak in decades is not just killing Brazilians, it threatens to wipe out monkeys in the Atlantic rainforest that are already close to extinction, experts warned on Tuesday.

So far 400 monkeys have been found dead in the state of Espirito Santo where the fever outbreak has spread from neighbouring Minas Gerais.

At greatest risk is the muriqui monkey, Brazil’s largest primate and one of the planet’s 25 most-endangered species of primates, said biologist Roberto Cabral at the Brazilian environmental agency Ibama.

“The monkeys are vulnerable to yellow fever just like humans but we have vaccines to protect us, they don’t,” Cabral said. “They are being decimated.”

Farmers first alerted authorities about the dying animals when they realized that the forest had gone silent and the monkeys had disappeared.

Disease

H5N8 avian influenza in Europe: 24 countries report bird flu since June

Since June 2016, at least 24 countries in the WHO European Region have reported outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) virus in wild birds and domestic poultry. At least 3 of these countries have reported outbreaks in the last 2 weeks. Outbreaks have also been reported in countries in Africa, Asia and the Middle East.

This has prompted WHO to call for heightened vigilance and strengthened surveillance efforts to prevent and detect potential human cases of avian influenza as it continues to spread in birds across Europe.

This is the second time that this virus has caused outbreaks in Europe with the autumn migration of wild birds. The virus was first detected in birds in Asia in 2014, where it has continued to circulate. In June 2016 the virus was detected in waterbirds in the southern part of the Russian Federation, and by September 2016 the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations had issued an alert for countries along the West Eurasian and Afro-Eurasian migration routes to watch for this virus.

Like other HPAI viruses, A(H5N8) can cause severe disease in birds, especially chickens. No human cases of avian influenza A(H5N8) have been reported to date. However, because similar influenza subtypes have caused human disease in the past, the possibility of transmission cannot be excluded.

Yellow Fever Spreading – Brazil

On 24 January 2017, Brazil’s International Health Regulations (IHR) National Focal Point (NFP) provided the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) with an update on the yellow fever situation. The geographical distribution of confirmed yellow fever human cases is expanding and includes, in addition to Minas Gerais State, the States of Espírito Santo and São Paulo. In addition, Bahia State reported 6 yellow fever human cases under investigation. The Brazil Health Ministry is now reporting suspected yellow fever cases in the states of Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul as well.