Disease

Guatemala: Typhoid outbreak

Health officials in Guatemala are reporting a typhoid outbreak in Petén department in the north of the country, according to a Prensa Libre report (computer translated). The outbreak began in the municipality of Dolores one month ago, according to Health Minister, Lucrecia Hernandez. To date, 60 typhoid cases have been confirmed, including two deaths.

Uganda issues viral hemorrhagic fever alert

On Monday, the Uganda Ministry of Health received a report of a suspect viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) death in Luwero district. The case, a 20-year old female presented with a high fever, dizziness and blood secretion from her ears and mouth. In addition, three other female patients have been admitted to Bishop Asili Hospital and are observation.

Polio update: More cVDPV2 reported in Syria, DRC

Additional cases of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) have been reported recently in both Syria and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), according to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) this week.

Syria: Three new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were officially confirmed at WHO headquarters in the past week, bringing the total number of cases in this outbreak to 30. Onset of paralysis of these cases is between 3 March and 16 June. Twenty-nine of the cases are from Mayadeen district, Deir Ez-Zour governorate, and one case is from Talabyad district, Raqqa governorate.

Democratic Republic of the Congo: Three new cases of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) were reported in the past week in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo). This brings the total number of cases this year to seven, in two separate outbreaks of cVDPV2: in Haut Lomami province (five cases, with onset of paralysis of the most recent case on 13 June); and in Maniema province (two cases with onset of paralysis on 26 March and 18 April, with an additional isolate detected in a healthy individual with sample collection on 2 May).

Disease

Polio: Syria Update

In a follow-up on the polio outbreak in Syria, five new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported in the past week, bringing the total of cVDPV2 cases to 22.

Yemen – Cholera Epidemic Update

The Ministry of Public Health and Population of Yemen has recorded a total of 39,688 suspected cholera cases and 183 associated deaths during the past week 22 to 27 June 2017. According to a World Health Organization Daily Epidemiology update today, 231,364 suspected cholera cases and 1,439 deaths have been recorded since April 27.

Disease

Syria polio update

According to the latest information from UN authorities dated June 19, seventeen cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type-2 (cVDPV2) have now been confirmed in Syria — 16 cases are from Mayadeen district, Deir Ez-Zor governorate, and 1 case from Raqqa district, Raqqa governorate.

Disease

Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus – China

On 19 May 2017, the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China (NHFPC) notified WHO of 17 additional laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China. On 26 May 2017, the NHFPC notified WHO of nine additional laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China.

Syrian polio outbreak

A polio outbreak has been confirmed in an area of Syria partly held by Islamic State, the first re-emergence of the virus in Syria since 2014, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative and the World Health Organization said on Thursday.

The virus was confirmed in stools of two people who had started to become paralyzed and those of a healthy child.

Disease

Mysterious polio-like disease sweeping the US

A six-year-old boy has died after contracting a mysterious paralyzing polio-like disease that is sweeping the US.

Tests revealed he was one of hundreds of children to have recently contracted a rare virus called acute flaccid myelitis (AFM), which attacks the brain and the spinal cord. The disease was first identified in 2014 when more than 100 children were hospitalized. Scores of them are yet to make a full recovery. So far, the medical community remains largely ignorant about what causes the disease and how to treat it. The CDC has issued a report warning there has been a surge in the number of children struck down by AFM this year

Disease

Wild polio and vaccine derived polio in Nigeria

After more than two years without the detection of wild polio in Nigeria, the Government reported three laboratory confirmed wild poliovirus type one (WPV1) cases with onset between July and August 2016.

Legionnaires Disease – Minnesota, USA

The Minnesota Department of Health says that 23 people who live or work in Hopkins have contracted Legionnaires’ Disease.

According to that news release, seven cooling towers in that city are being investigated in connection to this outbreak. As of September 29, 2016, all of those cooling towers have been or are being remediated by their owners. Remediation is complex process and can consist of heating the water in the building’s system to 157°F, draining tanks, cleaning them, chlorination, and frequent re-testing.

Cholera in Yemen

War-torn Yemen is suffering from a cholera outbreak, the UN’s children agency and the World Health Organisation have said, posing a further threat to infants in the impoverished nation.

The WHO, citing Yemeni health ministry figures, said that eight cholera cases mostly involving children had been recorded in one neighbourhood of the rebel-held capital Sanaa.

The agency says nearly three million people in Yemen are in need of immediate food supplies, while 1.5 million children suffer malnutrition, including 370,000 enduring very severe malnutrition that weakens their immune system.

Disease

Wild-Polio Outbreak in Nigeria

Nigerian health officials announced on Thursday, the same day they expected to celebrate the anniversary, that two children have been paralysed by wild polio in the country’s northeastern Borno State.

Borno State will now undergo three rounds of emergency immunizations, he added. Neighbouring countries have also been put on alert to look for cases of wild polio.

Other than Nigeria, only Afghanistan and Pakistan still experience outbreaks of wild polio virus. The two countries have had 19 cases of wild polio so far this year.

Wild polio is not to be confused with vaccine-derived polio, a weaker form of the virus that sometimes emerges when a country’s health system is under considerable stress. Last year, two children in Ukraine contracted this less virulent form of the disease.

Disease

Zika virus infection – United States of America – United States Virgin Islands

On 25 January 2016, the National IHR Focal Point for the United States of America notified PAHO/WHO of the first laboratory-confirmed cases of Zika virus infection in St. Croix, one of the three main islands in the United States Virgin Islands (USVI).

Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus – Lao People’s Democratic Republic

On 17 January 2016, the National IHR Focal Point (NFP) of Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR) notified WHO of 2 additional cases of vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (VDPV1). Both cases are from Longsane district, Xaisomboun Province.

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Thailand

On 24 January 2016, the National IHR Focal Point of Thailand notified WHO of 1 laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. This is the country’s second case of MERS-CoV infection (see DON published on 10 July 2015).

Bird Flu in Nigeria

Avian Influenza, popularly referred to as bird flu, is now in 18 states in Nigeria and has affected over 2.5 million chickens and is spreading fast.

By the last count, as of yesterday (Thursday), not less than 2.5 million chickens have been infected and over 700 farms have been affected nationwide. From one incidence in one state and moving to two states, it has increased and by now it is in not less than 18 states – according to local health authorities.

Newcastle Disease in the Philippines

The confirmation of an outbreak of the contagious and fatal Newcastle disease (ND) virus in Tarlac has spurred the Department of Agriculture (DA) to urge poultry stakeholders and fighting cock aficionados not to transport their animals to other regions.

Meningitis Outbreak in Ghana

Health authorities in central Ghana have denied that there is a meningitis outbreak in the country’s Ashanti region.

The Ashanti regional health directorate claimed that they were only nine people who had tested positive after critical tests were done, according to Citi News.

Reports, however, indicate that at least 32 people have died in the west African country since the outbreak of the disease four weeks ago.

According to Ghana web, more than 100 cases of Pneumococcal Meningitis have been reported in the country’s southern region of Brong-Ahafo region.

Disease

Zika virus infection – Honduras

On 16 December 2015, the Ministry of Health (MoH) of Honduras reported two (2) autochthonous cases of Zika virus infection. Both cases are male and residents of the southern area of Honduras.

Zika virus infection – Cape Verde

On 21 October 2015, the National IHR Focal Point of Cape Verde informed WHO of the country’s first reported epidemic of Zika virus infection.

Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus – Myanmar

The National IHR Focal Point of Myanmar has notified WHO of 2 cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2).

Disease

Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus – Lao People’s Democratic Republic

On 8 December 2015, the National IHR Focal Point of Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR) notified WHO of 2 additional VDPV1 cases. These cases are from Xaisomboun, a previously unaffected province. To date, the total number of confirmed cVDPV1 cases in this outbreak is 5.

Disease

Cholera – Iraq

WHO received notification from the National IHR Focal Point of Iraq of additional laboratory-confirmed cases of cholera.

As of 22 November, a total of 2,810 laboratory-confirmed cases of Vibrio cholerae 01 Inaba had been confirmed at the Central Public Health Laboratory in Baghdad, and only 2 deaths related to cholera were reported.

Cholera – United Republic of Tanzania

The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) of Tanzania has notified WHO of additional laboratory-confirmed cases of cholera. Across the country, at least 9,871 cases have been reported, including 150 deaths.

Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus – Lao People’s Democratic Republic

Two additional cases of type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV1) have been reported from Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR), bringing the total number of cases in this outbreak to three.

Disease

Chikungunya – Senegal

On 9 September 2015, the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs (MOHSA) of Senegal notified WHO of active circulation of chikungunya virus in the region of Kédougou. The circulation began on 27 August 2015. Samples were collected from 14 suspected cases for laboratory-confirmation at the Institut Pasteur of Dakar. Ten (10) samples tested positive for chikungunya virus. As of 8 September 2015, ten (10) chikungunya confirmed cases were reported. The latest active circulation in the affected area was reported between 2009 and 2010.

Poliovirus in Ukraine and Mali

The World Health Organization (WHO) recently confirmed the occurrence of two vaccine-derived polio cases in Ukraine and one case in Mali. The vaccine-derived polio cases are the ones caused by a mutant from the original wild poliovirus.

Although the number of reported cases of polio has significantly reduced globally, WHO believes that the incidence of three newly reported cases in Mali and Ukraine suggest why no country can be complacent about it and that every child should be immunized against the disease. Ukraine, on the other hand, has very low rates of polio immunization.

Bubonic Plague Case in USA

A Michigan resident recently contracted Bubonic plague after a visit to Colorado, health authorities confirmed Monday. The case is the first reported this year in the state and the 14th diagnosis nationwide.

The life-threatening disease is not native to Michigan and occurs when a person is bitten by an infected flea or rodent with the bacterium Yersinia pestis.

Infected populations often live in Western, rural areas of the country. Bubonic plague cannot travel from person to person.

Disease

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Saudi Arabia

Between 24 and 25 August 2015, the National IHR Focal Point for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia notified WHO of 15 additional cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, including 2 deaths. Eleven (11) of these reported cases are associated with a MERS-CoV outbreak currently occurring in a hospital in Riyadh city.

Polio in the Ukraine

Two children in southwestern Ukraine have been paralysed by polio, the first outbreak of the disease in Europe since 2010, the World Health Organization said on Wednesday, in a setback for a global eradication campaign.

The WHO said Ukraine had been at particular risk of an outbreak because of inadequate vaccination coverage. In 2014, only 50 percent of children were fully immunised against polio and other preventable diseases.

The risk of further spread within the country is high, although the threat to nearby Romania, Poland, Hungary and Slovakia is low.

There is no cure for polio, which attacks the nervous system and can cause irreversible paralysis within hours of infection. It mainly affects young children in areas with poor sanitation.

A global vaccination campaign has largely stamped out the virus, and only Pakistan and Afghanistan have reported cases of wild polio virus this year. Madagascar and Nigeria have suffered vaccine-derived outbreaks, like Ukraine.

Disease

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Jordan

Between 26 and 28 August 2015, the National IHR Focal Point of Jordan notified WHO of 4 additional cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, including 1 death. All these cases are associated with a MERS-CoV outbreak currently occurring in a hospital in Amman city.

Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus – Ukraine

In Ukraine, 2 cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) have been confirmed, with dates of onset of paralysis on 30 June and 7 July 2015. Both are from the Zakarpatskaya oblast, in south-western Ukraine, bordering Romania, Hungary, Slovakia and Poland. One child was 4 years old and the other 10 months old at the time of onset of paralysis.

Ukraine had been at particular risk of emergence of a cVDPV, due to inadequate vaccination coverage. In 2014, only 50% of children were fully immunized against polio and other vaccine-preventable diseases.

Legionnaires Disease in Illinois, USA

Seven people have died and 32 sickened in a Legionnaires’ disease outbreak at a veterans home in Quincy, Illinois.

Disease

Poliovirus in Madagascar

In Madagascar, 8 new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) have been confirmed, with dates of onset of paralysis ranging from 22 April to 29 May 2015. These new cases are genetically linked to cVDPV1 isolated from a case with onset on 29 September 2014, which indicates that the circulation of cVDPV 1 first detected in September 2014 continues and is geographically wide-spread. Five of the new cases are from Androy region in the south of the country while the other cases are from Menabe, Anosy and Boeni regions in the centre of Madagascar. The previous case with onset in September occurred in Sofia region, which is situated in the north of the country.