South Sudan: Viral hemorrhagic fever cluster

Three cases of a suspected viral hemorrhagic fever, epidemiologically linked by time and place, were reported from Yirol East county, in the Eastern Lakes State, South Sudan, according to the National Ministry of Health. All three cases ended in death.

Hepatitis A : Utah, USA

In a follow-up on the Utah hepatitis A outbreak, health officials have reported 124 cases in the current outbreak. The onset of illness ranges from May through Dec 2017. Several cases have been linked by investigation and/or viral sequencing to a national outbreak of hepatitis A involving cases in California and Arizona.



Guatemala: Typhoid outbreak

Health officials in Guatemala are reporting a typhoid outbreak in Petén department in the north of the country, according to a Prensa Libre report (computer translated). The outbreak began in the municipality of Dolores one month ago, according to Health Minister, Lucrecia Hernandez. To date, 60 typhoid cases have been confirmed, including two deaths.

Uganda issues viral hemorrhagic fever alert

On Monday, the Uganda Ministry of Health received a report of a suspect viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) death in Luwero district. The case, a 20-year old female presented with a high fever, dizziness and blood secretion from her ears and mouth. In addition, three other female patients have been admitted to Bishop Asili Hospital and are observation.

Polio update: More cVDPV2 reported in Syria, DRC

Additional cases of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) have been reported recently in both Syria and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), according to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) this week.

Syria: Three new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were officially confirmed at WHO headquarters in the past week, bringing the total number of cases in this outbreak to 30. Onset of paralysis of these cases is between 3 March and 16 June. Twenty-nine of the cases are from Mayadeen district, Deir Ez-Zour governorate, and one case is from Talabyad district, Raqqa governorate.

Democratic Republic of the Congo: Three new cases of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) were reported in the past week in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo). This brings the total number of cases this year to seven, in two separate outbreaks of cVDPV2: in Haut Lomami province (five cases, with onset of paralysis of the most recent case on 13 June); and in Maniema province (two cases with onset of paralysis on 26 March and 18 April, with an additional isolate detected in a healthy individual with sample collection on 2 May).


Pakistan reports 20 Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic fever deaths

Health officials in Pakistan have put the death tally at 20 so far this year due to the tick-borne viral disease, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), according to a report in The Nation today. This total includes 12 fatalities from Balochistan and five from Karachi. The remaining cases were from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Bahawalpur.


Mysterious Haemorrhagic fever outbreak in Sudan

The mystery disease in South Sudan has not been identified but is known to cause fever and unexplained bleeding.

So far, there have been 51 cases — including 10 deaths — from an unknown disease in the northern part of South Sudan. The main symptoms of the disease are similar to those seen with Ebola: unexplained bleeding, fever, fatigue, headache and vomiting.

Scientists have tested 33 of the cases for Ebola, and all of them came back negative. The samples also tested negative for other viruses known to cause unexplained bleeding, such as Marburg virus and Crimean-Congo fever.

Five samples did test positive for O’nyong-nyong — a mosquito-borne virus closely related to chikungunya. But O’nyong-nyong doesn’t cause bleeding and isn’t fatal.

“Viral hemorrhagic fever” is a generic term for a group of illnesses caused by four families of viruses. Several of these viruses — such as dengue, yellow fever and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever — are spread by mosquitoes or ticks. When the disease is severe, the virus can damage blood vessels, causing bleeding in organs, under the skin and from the mouth, eyes and ears.

But that’s not what kills. The cause of death is typically not loss of blood from bleeding, but from multi-organ failure — especially the kidneys and liver — and shock syndrome from low blood pressure in patients with severe illness.


Haemorrhagic fever syndrome – South Sudan

Between late December 2015 and early May 2016, the National IHR Focal of South Sudan notified WHO of an outbreak of haemorrhagic fever syndrome.

As of 9 May, a total of 51 suspected cases, including 10 deaths, had been reported from the counties of Aweil North (45 cases, including 10 deaths) and Aweil West (6 cases). No health care workers had been reported among the cases. The majority (74.5%) of the suspected cases are below 20 years of age.