Wildlife

Turtle herpes outbreak at Queensland Island, Australia

Two green sea turtles covered in tumours have washed ashore a bay off Magnetic Island in the past two weeks, victims of a crippling disease spreading through turtle populations.

The turtles were likely part of a larger group surveyed earlier this year just off West Point at Cockle Bay, where half of the green turtle population was found to have large tumours around their heads, eyes and shoulders.

Unpublished results have found the tumours are likely caused by fibropapillomatosis, a disease triggered by a turtle-specific herpesvirus that affects sea turtles across the world likely caused by pollution.

The tumours can grow up to 30 centimetres and while they are benign, they can leave turtles susceptible to other causes of death.

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Disease

Measles Outbreak in Ireland

Forty suspected cases of measles have been reported to the HSE’s Health Protection Surveillance Centre (HPSC), of which 21 have been confirmed.

The outbreak centres on the south-west of the country but some cases have been reported in Dublin, the mid-west and north-east.

Although public health doctors have traced the origin and spread of the disease, the outbreak has not been contained.

Wildlife

Crow Disease Carriers

Large gatherings of crows, which can congregate in flocks of tens of thousands, may be spreading disease to other species, including humans.

University of California, Davis, researchers found that approximately half of the 6,000 American crows that winter around the campus carry Campylobacter jejuni, which is the leading cause of human gastroenteritis in industrialized countries.

GPS tracking found the birds like to gather around areas with easy access to food, such as dairy barns.

The researchers say this could potentially play a role in spreading the disease to domestic animals, and through them, to humans.

Disease

Zika virus infection – Netherlands – Sint Maarten

On 25 February 2016, the National IHR Focal Point for the Netherlands notified WHO of two laboratory-confirmed cases of Zika virus infection in the Island of Sint Maarten. Sint Maarten is an independent state within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is one of the Leeward Islands situated in the western part of the Caribbean region, east of Puerto Rico.

Rare Elizabethkingia Bacteria Outbreak – Wisconsin, USA

A deadly bacterial outbreak is being investigated in Wisconsin with at least 44 reported cases, killing 18 people, according to the Wisconsin Department of Health Services.

The rare infection results from a naturally occurring bacteria called Elizabethkingia anophelis, which are found in soil, fresh water and reservoirs, health officials said. Symptoms include fever, shortness of breath, chills or redness on the skin.

The outbreak has primarily affected people over the age of 65 and everyone infected had a history of at least one serious underlying health condition. State and federal health officials said they’re looking to find the source of the outbreak.

Disease

Meningitis Outbreak in Niger

The government said Friday that since January the epidemic has killed 129 people out of 1,150 cases as of Wednesday. Just three days earlier on Sunday officials reported 85 deaths and 908 cases.

A couple dozen victims had died of the disease by the end of March, but in April the number of infections accelerated into an epidemic.

Several strains of the infection, which can be highly contagious, have been circulating in the landlocked nation of nearly 18 million in west Africa.

Niger, one of the world’s poorest countries, is prone to such epidemics because of its position in the “meningitis belt” that stretches from Senegal in the west to Ethiopia in the east, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).

Meningitis is an inflammation of membranes protecting the spinal cord and the brain, and the first symptoms include stiffness and severe headaches.

Disease

Amazon Tribe Reveals Western Life Is Killing Good Germs

Samples of germs taken from a tribe of once-isolated indigenous people in Venezuela’s Amazon region found that the tribesmen’s seclusion from the outside world until recently has allowed them to keep the highest diversity of bodily bacteria ever observed among humans.

The trillions of mainly beneficial bacteria our body uses for digestion and immunity have come under assault over the past 75 years by the use of antibiotics, and they are also diminished by the sanitary conditions people mainly enjoy in modern life.

Writing in the journal Science Advances, researchers say that comparing bacterial DNA from the Amazon’s Yanomami villagers with samples from U.S. residents reveals that microbes are about 40 percent less diverse in the American population.

The findings support the theory that lower microbial diversity now found in the developed world may be linked to immune and metabolic diseases like allergies, asthma and diabetes.

“The challenge is to determine which are the important bacteria whose function we need to be healthy,” said researcher M. Gloria Dominguez-Bellow of New York University.

Disease

Zimbabwe Battles New Cattle Disease Outbreak

AN outbreak of lumpy skin cattle disease in Masvingo Province, Zimbabwe is feared to have left 5 000 cattle affected.

The worst affected areas include Gutu , Masvingo, Zaka, Bikita, Mwenezi and Chiredzi.

The Department of Veterinary Services is currently carrying out vaccinations of all cattle in the province amid reports of shortages of vaccines and veterinaries.

The outbreak of the lumpy skin cattle disease coincided with farmers in Chiredzi and Mwenezi battling to contain the foot and mouth disease.

Movement of cattle in Chiredzi, Mwenezi and parts of Bikita has been suspended due to the disease.

All public cattle auctions have also been suspended in areas were the disease has wrecked havoc.

Last year, there were no cattle on show at the Masvingo Agricultural Show following an outbreak of foot and mouth in Mwenezi and Chiredzi Districts.

These are traditionally cattle ranching areas in the country.

Such setbacks have hampered plans to rebuild the national herd, which was decimated by the drought suffered in 1992.

Disease

First Death from New H10N8 Bird Flu Reported

An elderly woman in China is the first person known to have died from a strain of bird flu called H10N8, according to a new report of the case.

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – update

On 28 January 2014, the Ministry of Health of Saudi Arabia announced an additional laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection.

Foot-and-mouth disease breaks out in eastern Mongolia

An outbreak of highly infectious foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Sukhbaatar province in eastern Mongolia has been confirmed by the Mongolian State Central Veterinary Laboratory, local media reported.

Currently, 86 head of cattle of 15 herder families were infected with FMD and 82 of them were culled. Symptoms of FMD were observed in three sites, head of the district’s veterinary department said.

Disease

Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus – update

On 30 January 2014, the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) of China notified WHO of seven additional laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus including one death.

Flu in California

H1N1 Flu is hitting hard in California this season with 147 dead so far.

Wildlife

Plant Virus May Be Behind Massive Honeybee Deaths

Chinese and U.S. researchers say a virus that typically infects plants has been found in honeybees.

The scientists inadvertently found tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) during routine screening of bees.

“The results of our study provide the first evidence that honeybees exposed to virus-contaminated pollen can also be infected and that the infection becomes widespread in their bodies,” said lead author Ji Lian Li, at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science in Beijing.

He added that the honeybees can also spread TRSV as they move from flower to flower and between plants.

TRSV is particularly dangerous since it produces a flood of mutations that infect in different ways.

Bee colonies found with high levels of various viral strains were less successful in surviving harsh months last winter than those with lower levels of infections.

One-third of U.S. honeybee colonies died off during the winter of 2012-13, a 42 percent increase in fatalities from the previous winter.

TRSV infections could be at least one factor behind colony collapse disorder, which has stumped scientists for years.

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Disease

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – update

On 20 December 2013, WHO has been informed of an additional laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Malaria outbreak in Dadeldhura, Nepal.

According to Prasotum Gautam, one of the local experts, the open border with India and the continuous migration of people between the two countries have led to the fresh outbreak of the mosquito-borne disease in the district. No information of how many people were affected was available.

Disease

California On Alert For Yellow Fever Carrying Mosquitoes

Californians have been warned to be on lookout for yellow fever-carrying mosquitoes, which are most commonly found in hot tropics of the world, as well as southeastern states of the US.

Aedes aegypti, a type of mosquito that carries the disease, was first found in June in the city of Madera, California. The mosquito bites during the day and are capable of reproducing simply by laying eggs in less than a teaspoon of water.

Despite eradication efforts to warn people of standing water that can allow these insects to lay its eggs, more mosquitoes were soon discovered in Clovis, Fowler, as well as San Mateo County in August. This week, the pest was found in Fresno.

Yellow fever-carrying mosquitoes are also capable of harboring dengue fever; both diseases are viral that can be fatal if not treated appropriately. Yellow fever causes severe flu-like symptoms, at times jaundice as well. Dengue fever causes headaches, body pains, and a rash similar to what patients get when diagnosed with measles.

Disease

Bubonic Plague Still Kills Thousands

Bubonic plague, the deadly scourge that wiped out half of Europe during the Middle Ages, still lurks in pockets of the globe, new research suggests.

Although plague is now rare in Europe, it recently sickened more than 10,000 people in Congo over a decade, and cases still occasionally emerge in the Western United States, according to a study published Sept. 16 in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

The plague bacteria, Yersinia pestis, had lain dormant in China’s Gobi Desert for centuries. But in the 1300s, it emerged with a vengeance, fanning out via trade routes from Asia to Europe and killing millions of people along the way. The plague was transmitted by fleas harbored by rats, which flourished in the overcrowded, filthy cities of the Middle Ages. By the end of the 1500s, between a third and half of Europe’s population had died from the Black Death. [Pictures of a Killer: Plague Gallery]

Even during the 1900s, the plague still killed millions of people, but since then, the advent of better hygiene in cities and swift treatment with antibiotics has reduced this erstwhile killer into a rare disease.

Still, plague outbreaks still flare up around the world.

According to the new study, which tallied the reported cases of plague around the world between 2000 and 2009, more than 20,000 people became infected during that time. People contracted the disease via rodents, bad camel meat and sick herding dogs, the report said. Cases in Libya and Algeria re-emerged after decades of absence.

The biggest burden was in Africa: in Congo 10,581 people contracted plague, followed by Madagascar with 7,182 cases and Zambia with 1,309 cases.

In the United States during that time period, 56 people contracted the plague and seven died. The cases occurred mainly because plague has become endemic in squirrels and wild rodents in the American West. Two of the fatalities were scientists: one who had conducted an autopsy on a wild mountain lion, and another who worked with plague bacteria in the lab.

Despite being a hotbed of plague in times past, Europe logged very few cases of the disease in the past decade. That may be because European cities keep their rodent populations in check, so the potential hosts for plague aren’t as prevalent, the researchers said.

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Global Warming

Global Warming Helps Pests and Diseases to Spread

Climate change is helping pests and diseases that attack crops to spread around the world, a study suggests. Crop pests are moving at an average of 3km (two miles) a year. They are heading towards the north and south poles, and are establishing in areas that were once to cold for them to live in.

Currently, it is estimated that between 10% and 16% of the world’s crops are lost to disease outbreaks. The researchers warn that rising global temperatures could make the problem worse. “Global food security is one of the major challenges we are going to face over the next few decades. We really don’t want to be losing any more of our crops than is absolutely necessary to pests and pathogens.”

612 crop pests and pathogens from around the world had been collected over the past 50 years. These included fungi, such as wheat rust, which is devastating harvests in Africa, the Middle East and Asia; insects like the mountain pine beetle that is destroying trees in the US; as well as bacteria, viruses and microscopic nematode worms.

Each organism’s distribution was different – some butterflies and insects were shifting quickly, at about 20km (12 miles) a year; other bacterium species had hardly moved. On average, however, the pests had been spreading by 3km each year since 1960. “We detect a shift in their distribution away from the equator and towards the poles.”

The researchers believe that the global trade in crops is mainly responsible for the movement of pests and pathogens from country to country. However, the organisms can only take hold in new areas if the conditions are suitable, and the researchers believe that warming temperatures have enabled the creature to survive at higher latitudes.

“The most convincing hypothesis is that global warming has caused this shift. One example is the Colorado potato beetle. Warming appears to have allowed it to move northwards through Europe to into Finland and Norway where the cold winters would normally knock the beetle back.”

The researchers said that better information about where the pests and pathogens were and where they were moving was needed to fully assess the scale of the problem. “We also need to protect our borders, we have to quarantine plants to reduce the chances that pests and pathogens are able to get into our agricultural systems.”