Earthquakes

Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

6.9 earthquake hits the South Sandwich Islands.

6.4 earthquake hits the Solomon Islands.

6.2 earthquake hits the southern East Pacific rise.

Two 5.4 earthquakes hit the South Sandwich Islands.

5.2 earthquake hits the Drake passage.

5.0 earthquake hits northern Alaska.

5.0 earthquake hits central Afghanistan.

5.0 earthquake hits the Solomon Islands.

5.0 earthquake hits the South Sandwich Islands.

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Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

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In the Indian Ocean: Tropical cyclone 07b (Gaja), located approximately 75 nm east of Cochin, India, is tracking west-southwestward at 16 knots.

NewsBytes:

Trinidad – Heavy rains have caused floods in Penal, Barrackpore, leaving several people trapped in their homes and closing a school.

Environment

Atacama Rains

Microbes in the world’s driest desert have been ravaged by recent rains in a region that had previously seen no precipitation for the past 500 years.

Chile’s Atacama Desert has received unprecedented rains during the last three years, and Spanish researchers say it has devastated life that had evolved to live in a rain-free environment.

“Our group has discovered that … the never-before-seen rainfall has not triggered a flowering of life in Atacama, but instead the rains have caused enormous devastation in the microbial species,” said astrobiologist Alberto G. Fairén.

Jumping Worms Invade America

Expanding populations of invasive earthworms from Asia are altering the soil across parts of America, from the Southeast to the Upper Midwest, in ways that are just now being studied.

The jumping earthworms are native to eastern Asia and have been known locally for the past 100 years as crazy worms, Alabama jumpers and snake worms.

Researchers from the University of Wisconsin in Madison have found that they leave little balls of soil mixed with their feces that look like coffee grounds.

Geoscientist Jenelle Wempner discovered that the excrement mix locks up nutrients and chemically alters the soil. This could deprive trees of those nutrients as well as increase erosion.

Environment

Global Temperature Extremes

The week’s hottest temperature was 108 degrees Fahrenheit (43.9 degrees Celsius) in Twee Riviere, South Africa.

The week’s coldest temperature was minus 63.0 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 52.8 degrees Celsius) at Vostok, Antarctica.

Temperatures were tabulated from the more than 10,000 worldwide synoptic weather stations. The United Nations World Meteorological Organization sets the standards for weather observations, and provides a global telecommunications circuit for data distribution.

Disease

Hepatitis A – Tennessee, USA

The Tennessee Department of Health continues to investigate and respond to a hepatitis A outbreak impacting the state with more than 400 cases of illness to date. One death associated with this hepatitis A outbreak has been reported. The outbreak in Tennessee most heavily affects Nashville and Chattanooga.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 7 November – 13 November 2018

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was high at 1,100 tons/day on 6 November, an increase from the previous measurement of 1,000 tons/day recorded on 23 October. Very small eruptive events were occasionally recorded during 9-12 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that an event at Dukono, recorded by the seismic network at 0824 on 8 November, generated an ash plume that rose 200 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. The Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-13 November ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 2-9 November that sent ash plumes to 3.7 km (12,400 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted in multiple directions and caused ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that 7-18 explosions per hour were detected at Fuego during 8-12 November. Ash plumes from the explosions rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 8-20 km W and SW. Ash fell in areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Panimaché (8 km SW), El Porvenir, Finca Palo Verde, and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Incandescent material was ejected 150-300 m high and caused avalanches that traveled far, reaching vegetated areas in multiple drainages. Lava flows as long as 1.2 km advanced in the Ceniza (SSW) drainage, though lava-flow activity greatly decreased by 12 November.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : According to the Darwin VAAC an ash plume from Kadovar was identified in satellite data on 9 November drifting WNW at an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l.

Krakatau | Indonesia : PVMBG reported that four events at Anak Krakatau occurred between 1620 and 1710 on 9 November. Each event lasted for 42-55 seconds, based on the seismic data, and produced ash plumes that rose 300-500 m above the crater rim and drifted N. An event at 0939 on 10 November generated an ash plume that rose 500 m and drifted N. There were 10 events recorded during 1029-1656 on 12 November, each lasting 38-117 seconds, and producing ash plumes that rose 200-700 m and drifted N. Four events were recorded during 0546-0840 on 13 November, each lasting 44-175 seconds, and producing ash plumes that rose as high as 800 m. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 2 km of the crater.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 2-8 November the lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater grew slowly at a rate of 3,500 cubic meters per day, faster than the previous week. By 7 November the volume of the dome, based on photos from the SE sector, was an estimated 273,000 cubic meters. White emissions of variable density rose a maximum of 100 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Rincon de la Vieja | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported a two-minute-long eruption at Rincón de la Vieja began at 1703 on 9 November. Weather conditions prevented webcam views and estimates of plume heights.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that an average of 18 explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 5-11 November. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3.7 km above the crater rim and drifted 40 km N, NW, and W. MIROVA detected seven thermal anomalies, and on 8 November the sulfur-dioxide gas flux was high at 2,500 tons per day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Semisopochnoi | United States : AVO reported that three possible small explosions at Semisopochnoi were detected in infrasound data between 1951 and 2004 on 9 November. No associated ash clouds were observed in partly cloudy satellite images, and no other activity was noted during 7-11 November also in partly cloudy images. Images were cloudy during 12-13 November. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (both are the second highest levels on four-level scales).

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite data on 2 and 6 November. Explosions at 1510 on 9 November generated ash plumes that rose to 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 5 km NE. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 6-11 November low-level ash-and-gas emissions at Turrialba were continuous, though occasionally punctuated by energetic explosions which elevated the plumes as high as 500 m above the crater rim. The emission drifted towards the Valle Central. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Cascajal de Coronado, Desamparados (35 km WSW), San Antonio, Guadalupe (32 km WSW), Sabanilla, San Pedro Montes de Oca, Moravia (31 km WSW), Heredia (38 km W), and Coronado (San José, 35 km WSW). Emissions likely continued on 12 November, though inclement weather did not allow for visual confirmation.

Veniaminof | United States : AVO reported that the eruption from the cone in Veniaminof’s ice-filled summit caldera, continued at low levels during 7-13 November. Satellite and webcam data showed elevated surface temperatures from minor lava spattering and lava effusion. Continuous low-amplitude tremor was recorded. Steam and diffuse ash plumes periodically identified in webcam and satellite images rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and W. Recent satellite data showed that the lava flows had traveled as far as 1.2 km from the vent. Fractures in the ice sheet adjacent to the lava flow continued to grow due to meltwater flowing beneath the ice sheet. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale).