Earthquakes

Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.4 earthquake hits near the north coast of Papua, Indonesia.

5.1 earthquake hits Timor, Indonesia.

5.0 earthquake hits southern Peru.

5.0 earthquake hits the mid-Indian ridge.

5.0 earthquake hits the Kermedec Islands.

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Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

There are no current tropical storms.

NewsBytes:

Tunisia – Tunisian authorities say at least five people have been killed in flash floods in the country caused by heavy rains Wednesday and Thursday. Two other people are missing.

The regions of Bizerte in the north, and of Nabeul, about 70 kilometers (45 miles) east of the capital, received up to 200 millimeters (almost 8 inches) of rainfall. Some schools have been closed and homes, roads and hydro-electric power facilities along rivers have been severely damaged.

Texas, USA – Two people have died in flooding in Central Texas that caused a bridge to collapse. Heavy rains led to flooding where the Llano River and the Colorado River meet in Kingsland, Texas. Flood waters rushed over the 2900 bridge for hours before it collapsed.

El Niño Emerging?

The U.S. environment agency NOAA predicts there is now a 70 to 75 percent chance that the weather-altering ocean warming in the Pacific known as El Niño will develop during the next several weeks.

Observations seem to show an ocean-surface warming emerging in the eastern tropical Pacific during the past few weeks off the coast of Ecuador.

The last El Niño triggered crop damage, fires and flash floods in various parts of the world when it occurred from 2015 to 2016.

Global Warming

Alpine Glacier Loss

Some of the hottest summer temperatures on record in Switzerland this year caused the country’s glaciers to lose 2.5 percent of their volume, according to the Swiss Academy of Science.

This year’s record heat came after an especially snowy winter that helped replenish some of the Alpine snowcap diminished by three previous consecutive years of little snow.

Climate change has caused Swiss glaciers to lose a fifth of their ice during the past decade.

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Environment

Global Temperature Extremes

The week’s hottest temperature was 118 degrees Fahrenheit (47.8 degrees Celsius) in Matam, Senegal.

The week’s coldest temperature was minus 85.0 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 65.0 degrees Celsius) at Vostok, Antarctica.

Temperatures were tabulated from the more than 10,000 worldwide synoptic weather stations. The United Nations World Meteorological Organization sets the standards for weather observations, and provides a global telecommunications circuit for data distribution.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – Ongoing Activity for the week of 10 October – 16 October 2018

Aira | Kyushu (Japan) : JMA reported occasional, very small events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 9-15 October. Sulfur dioxide emissions decreased from 3,400 tons/day on 4 October to 600 tons/day on 10 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) : Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-12 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SW.

Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) : Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 5-12 October that sent ash plumes to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images showed ash plumes drifting about 125 km SE on 5 and 8 October, and a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 8 October. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Fuego | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that on 12 October a new phase of activity began at Fuego, characterized by lava fountains rising as high as 400 m above the crater rim, avalanches of incandescent material down the W and SSW flanks, increased rumbling, and a lava flow traveling 1 km down the Santa Teresa (W) drainage. Very frequent explosions generated ash plumes that rose 850 m and drifted 12 km S and SE. On 13 October a steaming lahar descended the Ceniza (SSW) drainage, carrying blocks up to 2 m in diameter, and branches and tree trunks. During 13-16 October explosions (8-18 per hour) produced ash plumes that rose almost 1 km and drifted 8-12 km S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, and Panimaché I and II (8 km SW). Incandescent material was ejected 150-200 m high, causing avalanches of material within the crater, though some of the avalanches traveled long distances, reaching vegetated areas. The lava flow on the W flank was still visible but by 14 October no longer active.

Kadovar | Papua New Guinea : Based on satellite data and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-12 October ash plumes from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W.

Manam | Papua New Guinea : RVO reported that during 2-12 October brown, gray-brown, and dark gray ash emissions rose as high as 1 km above Manam’s Southern Crater rim and drifted NW. Main Crater produced occasional white emissions, though on 2 October plumes were gray-brown and contained ash. Bluish vapor was noted during 3-4 October.

Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) : PVMBG reported that during 5-11 October the lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater grew slowly at a rate of 3,100 cubic meters per day, though faster than the previous week. By 11 October the volume of the dome was an estimated 160,000 cubic meters. White emissions of variable density rose a maximum of 75 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Pacaya | Guatemala : INSIVUMEH reported that during 11-15 October Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 25 m above the crater rim, and gas plumes rose 200-700 m. A lava flow that first emerged on 11 October traveled NW towards Cerro Chino, and by 15 October was 250 m long.

Sabancaya | Peru : Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosions at Sabancaya averaged 17 per day during 8-14 October. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km NE, E, SE, and SW. The MIROVA system detected six thermal anomalies, and on 14 October the sulfur dioxide gas flux was high at 3,132 tons per day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) : KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite data during 8-10 October; weather clouds prevented views on the other days during 5-12 October. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-colour scale).

Turrialba | Costa Rica : OVSICORI-UNA reported that most days during 10-16 October intermittent, passive gas-and-ash emissions at Turrialba rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim. The emissions drifted W, SW, S, and NE. There were also some explosive events; an energetic explosion was recorded at 1712 on 14 October, though cloudy weather prevented estimates of a plume height.

Veniaminof | United States : AVO reported that the eruption at Veniaminof continued during 10-16 October, as evidenced by elevated surface temperatures in satellite data, and low-level continuous tremor. Satellite data indicated that the E part of the S-flank flow field remained active. The Aviation colour Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.