Earthquakes

Magnitude 5+ Earthquakes – Global

5.7 earthquake hits east of the South Sandwich Islands.

5.2 earthquake hits southern Greece.

5.2 earthquake hits the Philippines.

5.1 earthquake hits Kepulauan Tanimbar, Indonesia.

5.0 earthquake hits the Philippines.

5.0 earthquake hits Fiji.

5.0 earthquake hits Northern Sumatra, Indonesia.

Two 5.0 earthquakes hit the southern East Pacific rise.

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Storms and Floods

Tropical Storms – Roundup of Tropical Storms:

Gl sst mm

In the Atlantic Ocean: Tropical Storm Kirk is located about 60 mi…95 km ene of Barbados and about 170 mi…275 km ese of Martinique with maximum sustained winds…50 mph…85 km/h. Present movement…wnw or 290 degrees at 16 mph…26 km/h.

In the Eastern Pacific Ocean: Hurricane Rosa is located about 630 mi…1015 km wsw of Puerto Vallarta Mexico and about 485 mi…780 km sw of the southern tip of Baja California with maximum sustained winds…85 mph…140 km/h. Present movement…w or 270 degrees at 12 mph…19 km/h.

In the Western Pacific Ocean: Typhoon 28w (Trami), located approximately 298 nm south-southeast of Kadena AFB, Japan, is tracking northwestward at 01 knot.

Tropical depression (td) 29w (Twenty-nine), located approximately 536 nm north of Miami Tori Shima, Japan, is tracking northeastward at 13 knots.

In the Southern Hemisphere: Tropical cyclone (tc) 02p (Liua), located approximately 480 nm northwest of Port Vila, Vanuatu, is tracking southeastward at 09 knots.

NewsBytes:

Alabama, USA – Flash floods trapped people in homes and vehicles in north Alabama on Wednesday, and forecasters said the threat could last another day. Torrents of rain from a cold front moving through the state caused water to quickly cover roads and low-lying areas near Birmingham.

Global Warming

Scientists Link Southern Ocean’s Rapid Warming to Human Activity

In the past few decades, the Southern Ocean surrounding Antarctica has gotten less salty and has warmed at roughly twice the rate of global oceans overall.

Now, in a new study, scientists found convincing evidence that these trends are the result of two human influences: climate change from greenhouse gas emissions and the depletion of the ozone layer.

The research, published this week in the journal Nature Geoscience, was authored by scientists from Environment and Climate Change Canada and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in California.

Using climate models, data from the Argo global network of floating ocean sensors and past records, the researchers determined that Antarctica’s warming and freshening waters are directly linked to ozone depletion and greenhouse gas emissions, as opposed to natural variabilities.

This is the first time such a connection has been found specifically for the Southern Ocean, lead author Neil Swart of Environment and Climate Change Canada told Canada’s National Observer.

“While the influence of ozone depletion and greenhouse gas increases on the Southern Ocean have been suggested for some time, our research provides the evidence that links the observed changes to these mechanisms, and defines their relative importance,” Swart said.

Wildfires

Wildfires – Croatia, Italy

A wildfire whipped by strong winds has forced dozens of people to evacuate part of a peninsula in southern Croatia as the army joined local efforts to fight the flames. Authorities said the wind prevented firefighting planes from helping ground teams and pushed the fire toward the village of Mokalo on the Peljesac peninsula. Strong winds also disrupted ferry traffic between the Croatian islands, and on bridges and highways along the coastline.

Tinder-dry conditions on the other side of the Adriatic Sea have caused similar problems in Italy. A huge forest fire which broke out in northern Tuscany on Monday night forced the evacuation of around 700 residents from their homes. The fire, which broke out near Pisa was thought to be most critical near the towns of Calci, Montemagno, San Lorenzo, Zambra, Caprona and Noce.

Volcanos

Roundup of Global Volcanic Activity – New Activity for the week of 19 September – 25 September 2018

Ketoi | Kuril Islands (Russia) : Based on a report from SVERT the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 21 September an ash plume from Ketoi drifted NE.

Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) : OVPF reported that, based on visual observations and satellite data, a lava flow at Piton de la Fournaise had traveled 2.8 km S and then SE, and was 500 m from the S wall of Enclos Fouqué by 18 September. It was 660 m wide at the widest part. Volcanic tremor was at a low level and relatively stable on 19 September, and then decreased on 20 September. During fieldwork on 21 September volcanologists observed three active lava fountains that were continuing to build the cone. The E wall was 30 m high, particularly vertical, and appeared unstable with numerous fractures. The lava flows were well-channeled and had advanced several hundred meters since 19 September, threatening an OVPF seismic station. Volcanic tremor levels fluctuated during 21-22 September. Deposits of Pele’s hair were noted in the Grand Coude area (8-10 km SW) on 22 September. During an overflight that same day volcanologists noted that the three lava fountains in the cone were visible, and lava tubes had formed near the uppermost part of the channel. Volcanic tremor had doubled in intensity on 23 September. Compared to the beginning of the eruption on 15 September the sulfur dioxide emissions had decreased by a factor of six; gas plumes were small and drifted S and W, but were confined to the Enclos Fouqué.

Sarychev Peak | Matua Island (Russia) : KVERT reported a continuing eruption at Sarychev Peak (the NW part of Mantua Island) through 21 September. Island observers reported explosions at 1010 on 18 September that sent ash plumes to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes identified in satellite images during 17-18 September drifted 265 km E. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Semisopochnoi | United States : AVO reported that during 19-25 September seismicity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated, alternating between periods of continuous and intermittent bursts of tremor. Tremor bursts at 1319 on 21 September and at 1034 on 22 September produced airwaves detected on a regional infrasound array on Adak Island; no ash emissions were identified above the low cloud deck in satellite data, and the infrasound detections likely reflected an atmospheric change instead of volcanic activity. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) remained at Yellow and Volcano Alert Level (VAL) remained at Advisory.

Ulawun | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) : According to the Darwin VACC, a pilot observed an ash plume from Ulawun rising to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting W. Ash was not confirmed in satellite images, though weather clouds obscured views.

Veniaminof | United States : AVO reported that the eruption at Veniaminof continued during 19-25 September, as evidenced by nighttime incandescence recorded by the FAA web camera in Perryville (35 km S), elevated surface temperatures in thermal satellite data, and elevated seismic activity. A gas plume was occasionally visible during clear daytime conditions. A lava flow had traveled 800 m down the S flank of the summit cone by 14 September, though satellite images from 18 September indicated no further advancement. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.